The ocean likes to “collect” ships. For centuries the storms and reefs were collected at the bottom of a huge collection and a significant contribution to replenishment made war. The combination of a number of factors, these sunken ships and their cargoes could remain under water for centuries. So sometimes the findings are very intriguing, writes the edition “Cultural studies”.
Benjamin Lee Smith was one of the most prominent researchers in the Arctic. The Englishman climbed in such places that no one before him had never seen, and many of them were subsequently named in his honor. In 1881 the ship of Smith’s “air” sank near the archipelago, which today is known as the Land of Franz Joseph. Being able to reach the shore, the researcher called the open them the land in honor of his known relatives of Florence Nightingale. For the next six months, the surviving members of the crew lived in several makeshift homes on the Cape flora. In the end they were rescued, and Smith continued his career, earning prestigious awards and the respect of the scientific community.
However, despite all the honors and achievements Smith almost completely forgotten a few decades after his death. To correct such injustice, the researchers for many years trying to find it sunken steam boat. In 2017 the Russian crew inspected the bottom of the sea near Cape flora. When scanning has been detected an object the size of “Air”, and the footage has led to the conclusion that this is indeed the wreckage.
2. Champagne from the bottom of the sea
In 2010, divers explored the seabed near the Aland Islands in the Finnish archipelago. They found the remains of the ship, in the hold which is preserved 168 bottles of 170 year old champagne. The divers decided to celebrate the find, uncork a few bottles, and the wine was quite ready for consumption. After this discovery was given to the testing laboratory. Surprisingly, the chemical composition of the wine were similar to modern champagne, but with one significant difference. Wine of the XIX century was proof that the people of that era were literally obsessed with sugar.
Modern brands contain just 6 grams of sugar per liter, while bottled raised from the seabed, it was as much as 150 grams per liter. In part it was also more of salt, copper and iron. The prints on the tubes indicate that the wine was made by French producers of champagne Heidsieck, Juglar and Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin. To remain in perfect condition for 170 years after the death of the ship guilty it helped that at the depth of 50 meters there was almost complete darkness, and constant low temperature. Tasters described the taste as “smoky, spicy, with floral and fruity notes”.
3. A motley crew of the “Mary rose”
For many years historians believed that in England since Tudor times lived only “white” people. However, when was discovered the wreckage of the “Mary rose”, this warship became a strong argument of the theory of multicultural Tudor. It was the flagship of the squadron of king Henry VIII that sank in 1545 during a battle in the channel of the Solent. The wreck was discovered in 1982, and on the surface of the raised 30,000 artifacts and bones. After research attention was attracted by a mysterious eight skeletons, suggesting that the crew of a warship and, perhaps, all of Tudor England was quite “motley”.
DNA tests and artifacts have proved that at least four people were not white British. One of them was a Spaniard who worked as a ship’s carpenter. The second was the Italian, the remains of which are found along with valuables, including the statue, made in a Venetian workshop. A third were of African origin (Northern Sahara), but researchers are almost certain that he was born in England. The fourth man was the moor, leading the origin from the North African coast. He was not a casual passenger. The moor was a Royal Archer, and probably served in the “Royal Spear” — the division of the personal bodyguards of Henry VIII.
4. The missing thumbnail
When Howard Carter discovered the tomb of Tutankhamun in 1922, the treasures found inside shocked the world. Among the artifacts were models of boats, intended for use by Tutankhamun (1341 BC — 1323 BC) in the afterlife. After Carter withdrew them from the tomb, the model was taken to the Luxor Museum in Egypt. By 1973, one tiny ship has officially gone missing, and it could not find nearly half a century. When in 2019, one of the Directors of the Museum of Mohamed Atva was preparing the exhibition, he found in one of the storerooms of the box. Inside wrapped in layers of Newspapers rested the pieces of the model boats. Atva immediately recognize wooden parts. Kit snap, mast and covered with gold in the nose of the boat was identical to another tiny ship from the tomb of Tutankhamun. The newspaper was printed in 1933 year, i.e. probably it was then that the tiny ship was missing (for 40 years before it is noticed). Most likely, someone just forgot to record that he repackaged the artifact and shifted the box.
5. Moving fleet
In 2017, a group of fifth-graders visited the Bay of Mallows Bay in Maryland to explore the 200 wrecks that have accumulated here after the war for independence, the civil war and both world wars. Many of these ships were sunk on purpose, and today they are essentially artificial ecosystem, for several marine species. Children aged 10 — 11 years old wanted to learn more about the so-called Ghost fleet. They studied aerial photos, marking shipwrecks, especially considering the maps produced with the difference in decades.
Maps showed that submerged “fleet” over the years, partially moved, and some ships “traveled” along the bottom by as much as 32 kilometers. Inquisitive young people also found the cause. Over time (sometimes it was necessary century) sunken ships moved under the influence of floods and storms.
6. The oldest bell and the astrolabe
In the history of the voyages the name Vasco da Gama is well known. Less known is the fact that the uncle of the Portuguese Explorer was a pirate. Vicente sodré was the captain of the “Esmeralda”, an armed ship designed to protect the commercial interests of Portugal. In 1502 Sodra went with a naval Armada to India, but he then went his own way, determined to Rob and destroy the Arab ships. The following year, during a storm, Esmeralda sank near Oman. The ship was found only in 1998, but work on its ascent to the surface began only in 2013.
While scuba diving has managed to raise the broken bells, and something resembling the astrolabe is rare on the navigation device. The analysis also found the date of manufacture of the device — about the year 1496. It turned out that it is not only rare, but also the oldest of the approximately 100 astrolabes that have survived to the present day. Bell was also the earliest found similar artifacts, it is dated 1498.
7. The victim of fire Titanic
It turns out that on the Titanic the fire raged before the ship collided with an iceberg. When the liner came out from Belfast, Northern Ireland, and sailed to Southampton, England, coal bunker No. 6 had been smoldering. The crew of the ship knew about the problem and three days trying to master fire. After the ship sank, the fire was forgotten, but new evidence shows that criminal negligence could have contributed to the crash of the ship. In 2017, revealed a new picture of the Titanic, which show dark areas on the case, in particular, about the bunker # 6, where the iceberg had caused the most damage. If the researchers are correct (and they consulted with experts on metallurgy), the fire heated the housing up to the hellish temperatures of 1000 degrees Celsius, which reduced the strength of the metal to 75 percent. This only increased the damage from the collision.
8. Mystery Of Columbus
The ships “Nina”, “Pinta” and “Santa Maria” became famous after the discovery by Christopher Columbus to the New world in 1492. Despite decades of searching, no one found any shatter these vessels. Columbus wrote that “Santa Maria” sat on a reef near cap-Haïtien, Haiti, in 1492. The crew partially disassembled the ship’s hull to build a fortified village called La Navidad (it also failed to detect). In principle, it is not surprising that the wreckage of the “Santa Maria” could not find, after all, more than five hundred years shashen could whittle away the wood of the ship, and in this area, frequent tropical storms, which for 500 years, little was left of the ship, which sank in shallow water.
Modern technologies such as sonar, also not able to detect the ships buried under centuries-old layers of sediment. Do not forget that the ships had very little metal, which makes useless an important tool of search of ships — magnetometer. Also there’s no record of what happened with the “Niña” and “Pinta” after their return to Europe. Interestingly, Columbus had still three times sailed to the New world with a new fleet, and none of these ships were also not found.
9. Mysterious baris
The famous Greek historian Herodotus once described the ship. During a trip to Egypt in 450 BC he watched the unusual construction of the barge, which locals called the “baris”. She had one rudder, passing through a hole in the keel, the mast of acacia and sails of papyrus. Herodotus also described the 100-inch boards, stacked like bricks, and the seams are sealed from the inside with papyrus. Archaeologists have never seen such a vessel. In 2000 was made an epic discovery of the sunken city of Tanis-Heraklion from the Egyptian coast. Among the underwater ruins were found fragments of more than 70 ancient ships, and the number 17 appeared just of the elusive “baris” of Herodotus.
10. Missing the remains of the shipwrecks of the Second world war
During world war II in the Java sea near Indonesia came together in the battle the allied fleet and the Imperial Japanese Navy. During the battle, was sunk by several ships from the UK and the Netherlands, and also a submarine from the United States. In 2016, the seabed was scanned by sonar. To the surprise of all, the Dutch cruiser “De Ruyter” and “Java”, the British cruiser “Exeter” and the destroyer “Encounter” and the American submarine “perch” was completely gone. There was also no significant part of the destroyers “Electra” and “Kortenaer”. This region is a real goldmine for thieves of metal that are disguised as fishermen and raise to the surface the remains of shipwrecks. This provoked a storm of anger because the ships that sank in 1942, there were also graves for hundreds of sailors.
The scandal intensified when the rescue of the company and representatives of the Navy of Indonesia stated that the court lay at too great depth and was too massive. To rise to the surface needed special equipment, a lot of people and months of time, which will make covert theft impossible.