Learning a foreign language is always fraught with difficulties: we prevent lack of motivation, wrong methods of teaching, lack of discipline and a clear plan. In addition, because our thoughts take form with words, the linguistic nuances and peculiarities of thinking of the nation, speaking a language closely linked. About it writes “Lifehacker”.
Learning a new language, most unlike the native, we learn to speak again. In adults it causes particular difficulties as the vocabulary and way of thinking have been formed.
So what prevents us to learn English.
1. Using the logic of the Russian language
Compare the phrase “my friends” and My friends and I: the meaning is the same, but they are built quite differently. As you can see, in the English language picture of the world on himself to say in the least. But man, just beginning to learn English, following the Russian linguistic logic, would surely say I and my friends will make a mistake.
Solution: initially we follow the logic of the English language.
Typically, a student studying a foreign language builds a phrase in your native language, then begins to literally translate it into English, and this leads to errors. To avoid such problems, you need to determine the meaning of your statements and immediately formulate a proposal for the rules of the English language.
First you need to find the differences in the logic. Will help you exercise Noticing the gap (“Noticing the differences”). Find a few English sentences from the book, textbook, movie, or TV show. Write them on one half of the sheet, and on the other side make normal, not a literal translation of each sentence in the Russian language. Then focus only on the Russian text and translate it back to English. Pay attention to the difference between the first and third sentences. Ask yourself the question how they differ. By focusing on those nuances, you will be able to quickly understand and learn the logic of the English language.
Here are a few examples where the literal translation prevents you to understand the phrase. Let’s say you see an offer What are you up to? This question has nothing to do with the upward movement, which is seemingly indicated by the word up (“up”). In fact, the phrase is translated as a friendly “What’s the plan?” Said during lunch Help yourself means not “self-Help” and “help yourself”. Finally, the mysterious Make up your mind urged you not to go to the make-up of the brain, but simply to solve something specific on the important issue.
Helps and easy reading: a constant flow of grammatically correct English speech establishes a logical and linguistic patterns.
It is very important to read regularly and use quality resources. Among the useful sites you should look at the following:
British Council — here you can select the section (topic or language level) and find as texts for reading and exercises for every taste.
100 Word Story site for the busy: every article, interview or story of not more than 100 words.
Tiny Texts — another resource with short texts. Attached to each audio version and minilover with the used vocabulary.
Lingua website for English learners at levels A1–B2. Small texts are accompanied by materials for self-examination.
ESOL Courses — texts on this site will be useful to students who have reached level B1.
Quizard Tube — in online, you can watch various videos (including the well-known movies and TV shows) with subtitles and small tests.
Blair English is a website for those interested in reading on business related subjects.
2. Memorizing the translation of individual words
Of course, without this language do not learn how. But, forgetting about the context, you risk getting into a situation when all the words in the sentence are familiar, but you don’t know what it was about, or can’t construct a sentence to answer. For example, knowing the word see, age, for, you, have, I (“see”, “century”, “for”, “you”, “have”, “I”), a person does not necessarily will make the right offer I haven’t seen you for ages, meaning “a Hundred years since I last saw you”.
Solution: learn the words ready-made phrases, and entire blocks.
This is the lexical approach to learning English: you learn a whole phrase or small phrase that you can use it immediately. Such elements are easier to remember when they are connected by one theme.
Knowledge of lexical expressions greatly facilitates the learning and memorizing complicated rules of grammar.
View on offer Are you working hard or hardly working?, which translates as “are You working hard or hardly?”. Pay attention to the words hard/hardly, in their place next to verbs and opposing meanings that they convey. Suppose you need to tell you about a fellow worker. What word to choose and where to put it? Not to say hardly worked (and unreasonable to call a colleague a bum) or hardly worked (which is generally meaningless because of incorrect word order and translates roughly as “hard working”), you need to pay attention to the expressions with the word hard. And repeat them many times, hard worked (“worked”), tried hard (“trying very hard”), hard fought (“fought”), found it hard (“it was hard”), prayed hard (“prayed earnestly”). So you do not make a mistake, because remember the correct phrase ready.
New lexemes and ready phrase in the context of learning on the resources of Memrise, a Language Drops and Clozemaster.
3. Focus on the “familiar” words
You think you know this word, because in Russian language there is exactly the same? Such tokens are called false friends of the translator: although they look familiar, their meaning may differ from the values in your own language.
Here are some examples: accurate — “accurate” cabinet “the Cabinet” Caucasian “man of the European race”, realize — “realize”, scholar — “scientist,” silicon — “silicon”, resin is “resin”.
Solution: disassemble and memorize false cognates using the learning pairs.
The principle is almost the same as that of paronyms in the Russian lessons (like “impressive” — “effectively”), just to the English words, and added another translation. Example: “Clay is clay, but the glue is the glue”.
And most importantly: if you read the text the first time I see the word, in the translation of which is as if unsure, stop and check its value in the dictionary.
4. “School” categorical
Let’s say you were to take a banana (Would you like a banana?). Traditional “school” responses to this question (Yes, please / No, thanks) do not give to practice useful vocabulary. It is better if the real conversation will sound something more than a “Yes/no”. For example:
No, thanks. I’m not hungry. “No, thank you. I’m not hungry.”
I’m fine for the moment. — “Do not want”.
I don’t really like bananas — “I like bananas”.
Solution: expand your lexical and grammatical horizons.
Again helping the good old reading: read as much English literature. Look at the world classics, but don’t try to grab hold of huge volume with a very complex vocabulary. For more active testing can be used adapted books series Cambridge Readers, Penguin Readers, Macmillan Readers, Oxford Bookworms, which groups texts according to language levels and can include tests on reading comprehension.
English, like Russian, are diverse — there are thousands of ways to Express the same idea in different words.
5. Learning vocabulary by standard literature
Classic and adapted texts from textbooks is very useful, but you need to remember about the language spoken today. It is not necessary to learn English, reading complex philosophical or socio‑political treatises, if you like car reviews.
Solution: reading modern and interesting for you texts.
To vocabulary relevant vocabulary, read the news: here to help the English-language media: The Guardian, BBC, The Times and others. If the news in original is given difficult, you can go to the website News in Levels: this resource picks up materials at your level after a small test on vocabulary.
Among the interesting thematic resources:
ScreenRant — for movie fans, TV series, comics and games;
Decanter for wine connoisseurs;
The Accountant — for those who follow the world of Finance;
Apartment Therapy — for enthusiastic interior design;
Herding Code — for IT‑professionals and those interested in this area;
Urban Dictionary — for those who are interested in the latest English neologisms.
Don’t look at the experience of others: reading books, travelling and work is not necessary to speak like the Queen. It is important to rely primarily on their feelings and perceptions. Of course, playing in groups is also necessary for the harmonious language learning, but it is best to practice an individual approach. But if you feel uncomfortable several times a week to go somewhere, it is always possible to engage in online training programs on the net today allow you to master English is not worse than at a Desk in the classroom.
And remember: independent work is very good, but you also need to regularly check how well you understand and remember new vocabulary. Therefore, early especially important is the help of a teacher: it will ensure that you learned everything properly and give you exercises that will help to better understand the logic of English and finally speak it without annoying bugs.