Numerous clinical studies have confirmed the disappointing fact — the level of blood cholesterol affects the risk of coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases.
However, it was found that the diet and the control of risk factors (excess weight, bad habits, sedentary lifestyle, etc.) help to reduce the risk of adverse effects of cardiovascular diseases by 80%.
Follow the caloric intake
Overeating is a real problem of our time. Modern man consumes food energy much more than тратит3. This is due to the fact that our diet is dominated by high-calorie foods — fast food, sausages, semi-finished products. Such products usually are overly sweet, fatty, their composition is dominated by refined carbohydrates, saturated fats. Contributes and alcohol, containing a large number of so-called “empty”, i.e. not bringing any benefit, carbohydrates. Not by chance about 25% of Russians have overweight, and another 30%4 — obesity.
Specialists recommend to maintain the body mass index at the level of 18-25 kg/m2, with a waist circumference should not exceed 94 cm for men and 80 cm for женщин5. First and foremost, to lose weight you need to reduce daily calorie intake.
Reduce intake of saturated fats
About a third (daily need) cholesterol enters the body of a man with пищей6. This means that observing a certain diet experts call it гипохолестериновой7 or антиатерогенной8 — can affect the level of cholesterol in крови9.
You first need to reduce the consumption of the so-called saturated жиров10. They usually are found in foods of animal origin such as fatty pork, lamb, duck meat, sausages. Another source of saturated fats, margarine and products containing it. These include virtually all factory-made cakes, biscuits, pastries, some breads.
Pay attention to the foods that contain the “hidden fats”. This fatty sauces, sour cream, cheese.
According to the recommendations of the experts, necessary to reduce the consumption of fats < 30%, saturated fat < 10% of the total daily количества11.
Eat more fish
The results of lengthy clinical observations made in the countries of the Mediterranean region, demonstrate that the level of cardiovascular diseases in them is significantly lower. Experts attribute the phenomenon to the prevalence in the diet of this region of unsaturated fats. This olive and nut oils, fatty fish rich in omega–3 polyunsaturated fatty кислотами12, which are not synthesized in the human body, and do it only with пищей13.
These substances normalize the level of cholesterol in the blood, slow the growth of atherosclerotic plaques, reduce the intensity of development атеросклероза14.
By itself salt does not affect the level of cholesterol in the blood. However, its role in increasing blood pressure, which often accompanies atherosclerosis, proven by numerous исследованиями15.
According to the recommendations of the experts, it is necessary to limit salt intake to 5-6 g per сутки16. In addition, it is better to avoid foods that contain “hidden salt”17. These include sausages, canned products, pickles, snacks (chips, crackers, nuts).
Increase fiber intake
Fiber, or soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, improve intestinal motility, serve as a substrate for the development of beneficial microflora. Disturbances of the intestinal microflora indirectly increase the risk of developing diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus 2nd type, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease. In addition, insoluble fiber speeds up the saturation and promotes the excretion of cholesterol from the intestine.
Fiber rich vegetables, herbs and fruit, including those that contain a lot of pectins — apples, apricots, and currants. In addition to them, fiber contained in many grains. Preference should be give whole cereals, no pre-processing. With concomitant diabetes mellitus it is necessary to adjust the content of carbohydrates in the diet in accordance with therapeutic diet.
Unfortunately, sometimes diet is powerless to reduce the level of cholesterol in the blood does not succeed. In this case it is necessary to consider the possibility of medication.