Disease COVID-19 has spread to 160 countries. Scientists have noted the need to improve test systems and identify the disease at an early stage. RBC has studied the experience of different countries in testing for the virus 2019-nCoV and patterns associated with it.
While the vaccine is not found, the most important measure to combat the virus 2019-nCoV, along with the quarantine remains testing. A virologist from the University of Kent Jeremy Rossman in conversation with RBC said that governments should not only take quarantine measures and restrict gatherings of people, but also to increase the availability of tests COVID-19.
“For example, in Britain the tests for the new virus is currently only available for the most seriously ill, although such tests should be available to everyone,” he said.
Indeed, despite the pandemic, a single testing Protocol does not exist. RBC has studied the experience with the test systems in different countries.
USA: bureaucratic problems
Low coverage of testing for 2019 coronavirus-nCoV the U.S. national average — less than one test per 10 thousand people — due to bureaucratic problems. The possibility of the development of American laboratories or using existing tests from other countries are faced with regulatory issues.
In addition, most test systems from the centers for control and disease prevention sent to space was defective. Medical companies have received emergency clearance on production only in mid-March, and now the number of available test systems in the US should increase — the producers promise millions of sets. But authorities urged to be tested only if there are grounds and after consultation with the doctor.
In those States where it conducted more tests, and fixed a large morbidity, for example, in Washington state, where the prevalence of laboratory tests is significantly higher than the national average.
According to March 20 in the US diagnosed more than 16 thousand cases, more than 200 people died (the data is constantly changing).
Russia: a test for those returning from overseas with a cold
Total in Russia on March 19, has played 133 thousand tests 2019 coronavirus-nCoV — eight tests for every 10 thousand people living in the country. The stock test is 700 thousand.
The decision of Rospotrebnadzor dated March 13, indicates the necessity of testing all, who in the past two weeks returned from Europe, as well as those who have been abroad in the last month and found the symptoms of colds. The decree also requires to determine the procedure of laboratory studies of “persons who do not have signs of colds and non-contact with patients COVID-2019, including the possibility of selection of the material from such persons in airports.” It operates throughout Russia, except Moscow.
City authorities explained that the need for analysis is always determined only by the doctor, focusing on the priority according to several risk groups. To the group of maximum risk assigned to people with symptoms of SARS manifested within two weeks after returning from countries with large outbreaks of infection, and patients with pneumonia.
The government has assured that the shortage of test systems in the country. According to the Minister of health of Michael Murashko, each checked for 2019 coronavirus-nCoV does not make sense.
According to the March 20, Russia recorded 253 cases and 1 death.
Japan: change of strategy
In Japan as in the U.S., had less than one test per 10 thousand people as of March 18. Authorities initially decided not to conduct mass testing, reviewing laboratory tests as a tool to obtain the most complete data about the infection and not as a way to identify patients for destination therapy. In early March in Japan has included this test in the list of tests covered by insurance, and the number of participants can grow.
According to March 20, in Japan diagnosed 963 cases, 33 people died.
Italy: only test people with symptoms
Italy became the epicenter of the pandemic in the EU. According to the March 20, infected more than 47 thousand people, more than 4 thousand were killed — the highest according to the latest information among all countries of the world where recorded infection coronavirus infection.
In the document, Italian Ministry of health dated 25 February, States that the testing is only for people with symptoms of flu-like illness or severe respiratory infections, and also at suspicion on presence of 2019 coronavirus-nCoV. The circular of 22 February described the grounds for suspicion: the presence of symptoms combined with a history of travel or close contact with sick or unexpected clinical course of a previously diagnosed disease of other origin (if the patient is receiving the right treatment).
This approach does not allow to take timely measures to contain the epidemic, said the head of infectious diseases hospital of Amadeus of Savoy in Turin, Giovanni di Perri. He called it passive.
To enhance diagnosis decided in the Veneto — one of the first regions of Italy, where they found cases of the disease. The Governor of the region Luca ZAIA said that tests for 2019 coronavirus-nCoV will hold even for those who might accidentally come in contact with an infected person, for example, staff supermarkets.
As of March 17, the level of obsledovanii to 2019 coronavirus-nCoV in the country was the highest in Europe — 25 tests per 10 thousand people. In Lombardy, where the epidemic is most severe, the level of protectionanti almost twice the 46 tests per 10 thousand people.
China: testing even with minimal suspicion
The peak of the epidemic in China has already passed, and to bring the outbreak under control had been including with testing, say Chinese doctors. They emphasize that many patients suffer coronavirus infection asymptomatic or mild symptoms and it is extremely important to identify those infected and promptly put them in quarantine. So, in Hubei province, was originally identified virus 2019-nCoV, the number tested was about 276 thousand people, or 47 tests per 10 thousand population.
The importance of testing on the example of China was noted and the world health organization (who): report on the joint mission of the who and the PRC dealt with the principle of early diagnosis and early isolation applied in the country. This approach included, among other things, measuring temperature, polls at the entrance to various institutions and transportation facilities, and testing of patients, even with low suspicion for infection.
According to the March 19, China recorded more than 81 thousand cases of infection over the entire period from December 31, 2019. Died 3,2 thousand people.
South Korea: mass tests for all
The same approach is followed in South Korea. There started mass testing, including the system drive-through when checked for the presence of infection without leaving the car (all tests are free). Thus it is possible to test for the presence of infection large numbers of people, avoiding contact between those who are tested, doctors say. March 8 South Korea remained the biggest source of infection outside of China (more than 7 thousand identified cases), but by 19 March the increase in the number of cases in the country amounted to about a thousand people, while in Italy the number of infected had grown significantly.
Now the infection rate in South Korea is 3.3 times below the average for Italy — 16 people out of every 100 thousand Out of every thousand people, five test 2019 coronavirus-nCoV.
As reported ForumDaily:
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