Diploma for the head of the White house: where and what kind of education received by the presidents of the United States

Whether the President of the United States diploma of higher education? What universities most often done by the owners of the White house? And how presidents have affected the U.S. education system? Say the authors of the podcast “Presidential history” for the “Voice of America”.

Диплом для главы Белого дома: где и какое образование получали президенты США

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In America there is no such cult of higher education in Russia, but now this situation is changing primarily because a diploma is required almost everywhere. When the author of the podcast came to the US about 20 years ago, he was struck by the fact that the certificate was required on a vast number of works which are in Russia, it was absolutely not necessary. In Russia a huge number of Amateurs-Amateurs who are successfully working in certain areas, but never received specialized education in this direction. In America, you just don’t get this job — you will not get it.

The value of education that it enables, first and foremost, get a good job and therefore earn more money and feel better in this life.

Perhaps in Russia the parents to be more sensitive: if the child say that he wants to get higher education, parents will faint. In America — if you don’t want to get a higher education, go to the profession that it requires. Of course, it all depends on each individual family. According to statistics, now one-third of the U.S. population has a higher education: this is a record high result, that is, the attitude to higher education began to change. It started around the beginning 80-x years and coincided with the latest round of technological revolution, with computers, with the advent of electronic technologies that were unthinkable earlier. It turned out that the most talented man who could easily have succeeded in the 60-ies, in the 80s out of business because I just don’t know how to use these new features, with rapid progress.

And education, even if you do not give stable knowledge, teaches you how to acquire and process information, time after humanity. In General, it is the main value of education, but it is worth remembering that there are different educational institutions, in particular, is not very good, and the task of man is to understand where it goes. Parents of children in the U.S. who intend to pursue higher education can learn numerous ratings showing how effectively to spend money on training in a particular University. Your education is worth so many thousands, and after graduation, your chances of getting a good job are as a percent, and your salary will be about this level. This information is available.

American education and Russian are somewhat different. In Russia traditionally people have graduated and worked in the specialty until the end of his days. Sometimes something has varied, the increased level of education, defended any thesis… In the US people repeatedly change the chosen profession, changing universities, I end up not finishing them — and that’s fine. It is important to understand to mention, what kind of training was received by the presidents of the United States.

There is one us President who tried to study abroad: John Kennedy entered the London school of Economics, but he had health problems and he returned to America. He formally studied Economics, but didn’t really get any help about this, no diploma, and as an economist, he never was. However, some time learning this profession.

Many presidents have engaged in the engineering Sciences, many really reached great heights. It is sometimes difficult to explain the American reality. For example, until the late 19th century, the only institutions of higher education of the United States, which gave engineering education, was a military Academy. People who have studied them, become officers, but were incredibly popular in America as brilliant engineers, surveyors, organizers of major industries. The military Academy of the United States, also known as West point, finished the two presidents is a Grant and Dwight Eisenhower, both were successful engineers, having formal military education.

There were other options, when the presidents began to study at a higher educational institution, continued in the second, finished in third. This was also due to various reasons. For example, President Gerald Ford studied at a very good University of Michigan. But there is some subtlety: he was captain of the football team, and as any American knows, sportsmen receive concessions in examinations. Most importantly, the team brought glory and laurels to his University. Ford was good at football and he even offered to pursue a career in professional sports, but that’s why it is difficult to assess his academic achievement.

Richard Nixon graduated from Whittier College in California. No one knows this name. The University has gained prominence only because it studied this future President of the United States. Why he went there? He didn’t want to leave far from family. He had an offer to study at Harvard, but his brother had tuberculosis, and Nixon stayed at home to help the family. Then he continued his education and graduated from Duke University with very good grades. It was even nicknamed “iron ass”: he got good grades because I tried, studied and sat over books.

Carter graduated from the technological Institute, and then the naval Academy of the United States in Annapolis and thanks to its technical knowledge became one of the first officers who served on the nuclear submarine fleet. Then he began farming and began growing peanuts.

But in America there are a number of universities that are associated with the names of the presidents. Presidents or graduated from these universities, or they had learned at least some time. In the first place is Harvard University — this is probably the oldest higher education institution of the USA and the most famous, went there 8 of US presidents. On the second Yale University, where he studied under 5 presidents. In third place — a little-known College of William and Mary in Virginia, one of America’s oldest universities, it is studied 3 the President. In fourth place is known to all Princeton — 2 President. In fifth place West point.

All the others were graduated from different educational institutions in one way or another, some presidents do not receive higher education, but some studied so bad that I tried not to advertise this fact. For example, the President trump graduated from the business school at the University of Pennsylvania, but hide their grades. He has a diploma, the high school he graduated from. But the University of Pennsylvania also does not apply about how trump studied. The President never acted in the University. Every University tries to involve its distinguished alumni to their important events and gives them some honorary doctoral degrees or diplomas. The University of Pennsylvania for some reason never invited Donald trump, and even tours of the University, this topic is not raised.

Trump was not the first President who had not been studied. However, there were presidents who were studied, on the contrary, well. You can go back to John Kennedy, who became interested in history and political science. He wrote a thesis, which is then published in a book, which became a bestseller.

Several presidents had no formal education — for example, the first U.S. President George Washington, although he was educated through self-education. Nobody could say that he lacks some knowledge or skills that provides higher education. But the situation then was different, a higher education is received the unit. In most cases, presidents are still somehow something was done. Even if it was insignificant for higher institutions, 40 presidents education.

Presidents rarely affect higher education in the country, but still sometimes did. This topic has acquired political significance in the 80-ies, when it became clear that education is not only the key to personal success but to the success of the economy of the whole country. American education throughout its history, as today, successfully exists on the basis of private educational institutions. You pay money, you teach, you get a diploma and go out into the world. There are no General education programs. There are some national tests that allow you to assess the quality of education, but the overall programme at the level of all schools or all universities no. Each University, in cooperation with other universities and professional associations in developing their programs. Therefore, presidents could do in this direction quite a bit.

It is worth saying that, first, public schools are the only military areas, such as West point, Annapolis, the United States air force Academy, coast guard Academy United States. Second, there are universities of States and individual districts, which are mainly due to taxes and budgets for these States and counties. They also pay and allow you to get a higher education to the natives of these regions for less money. As a rule, very good universities. All the other universities are private. They survive in the most severe conditions, because they need to attract students who bring them money.

Presidents have organized a program of soft loans for students who had to pay for the education. It is also started in the 80-ies under President Carter and President Reagan, which put quite a large effort to ensure that these loans were available to the largest possible number of people. Many presidents, including, in recent decades, spent considerable political capital and budget money to improve school education. Eisenhower’s presidency coincided with the collapse of the regime of racial segregation, and he took the politically risky decision when he sent National guard troops to ensure that in schools where studied only white children, there was black children. If it were adopted laws that allowed racial minorities to access education, which they were previously unavailable.

By and large, all subsequent owners of the White house acted in this direction: expanded opportunities. Lyndon Johnson was the first to expand opportunities for people with disabilities — for children who have experienced problems with visits to regular schools. Then the list was expanded to children with special needs have the same rights as other children. The school program began for them to adapt. It was a long, difficult, costly and very painful process. But now the American school in this regard — a great place that personal experience confirms the author of the podcast, the father of two children.

American universities are the preserve of liberal ideas, and trump is a conservative, so it is not very much. His appointment as head of the Department of education Betsy DeVos all the time criticize. She believes that private schools work better than public, which are paid from the Federal budget and budgets of States and counties. And therefore to public schools that do not work, received less money, and the money directed to private schools, motivating parents to transfer their children there. It is encountering fierce resistance of the people involved in public education. They believe that public education should be available and therefore it is necessary to improve public schools, not to get disciples out of them.

In addition, under President Obama, the Congress passed a law that allowed them to remove debts for the education of certain categories of students who many years ago finished College, but due to a number of reasons are unable to repay huge debts for their education. It encountered the resistance of Betsy DeVos, for which she was criticized by political opponents. But it’s a moot point, and to evaluate the results of such a policy will only be possible in a few years.

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