With the spread of coronavirus in the world there are many theories and fakes regarding where it came from, what the symptoms causes. The world health organization (who) decided to answer the most common questions about the virus and the disease it causes.
What is the coronavirus?
Coronaviruses constitute a large family of viruses with proven disease-causing properties in relation to humans or animals. It is known that a number of coronaviruses are able to cause respiratory infections ranging from the common cold to more serious conditions such as middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The last of the newly discovered coronavirus causes disease COVID‑19.
What is the COVID-19?
COVID‑19 – an infectious disease caused by the last of the newly discovered coronaviruses. Before the outbreak of the infection in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 on the new virus and the disease were not known.
What are the symptoms COVID‑19?
The most common symptoms COVID‑19 include fever, fatigue, and dry cough. In some patients may experience various aches, nasal congestion, rhinitis, pharyngitis or diarrhea. Usually these symptoms develop gradually and are mild in nature. Some infected individuals have no symptoms or you feel unwell.
Most people (about 80%) the disease ends in recovery, while the specific therapeutic measures are not required. Approximately one out of six cases COVID-19 has severe symptoms with the development of respiratory failure. In the elderly, and persons with existing somatic diseases such as hypertension, heart disease or diabetes, the probability of severe disease is higher. In the presence of fever, cough and difficulty breathing should seek medical help.
The spread of the virus?
Infected 2019‑nCoV can from other people, if they are infected with the virus. The disease can be transmitted from person to person through small droplets emitted from the nose or mouth of the patient COVID‑19 when you cough or sneeze. These drops fall on the surrounding human subjects and the surface. Other people can catch the disease by touching the first such objects or surfaces, and then to the eyes, nose or mouth. In addition, infection can occur by inhalation of fine droplets that are released when you cough or sneeze of a person with COVID‑19. For this reason, it is important to keep the sick person at a distance of 1 meter.
Who monitors the progress of studies on the transmission COVID-19 and will publish information as it is updated.
Is there any virus that causes COVID-19 through the air?
According to current scientific data more important transfer than air, are small droplets emitted from the respiratory tract.
Can you get COVID-19 from a person who shows no symptoms?
The virus is mainly spread through droplets emitted from the respiratory tract during coughing or sneezing. The risk of infection from a person with no symptoms is very low. On the other hand, many people have symptoms COVID-19 are expressed very weakly. This is especially true for the early stages of the disease.
Thus, the risk of transmission COVID-19 from a person who does not feel ill and only has a weak cough, there is. Who monitors the ongoing research on the question of the time interval during which a sick person is contagious, and will publish information as it is updated.
Can I get COVID-19 through the feces of the sick person?
Apparently, the risk of exposure to 2019-nCoV through the feces of an infected person is small. According to preliminary studies, the virus in some cases can be detected in the faeces, however, such transmission mechanism does not play a leading role in the current outbreak of the disease. Who is studying the results of the ongoing studies regarding the transmission of COVID-19 and will publish information as it is updated. This risk cannot be completely dismissed and this once again confirms the importance of regular hand washing after using the toilet and before eating.
Measures personal protection for all
Follow the latest information on the outbreak, which can be found on the website of the who, as well as to the national and local representatives of public health services. In many countries the reported cases of infection COVID‑19, and some of the outbreak. The Chinese authorities, as well as a number of other countries where were recorded outbreaks, could slow the spread of the disease or completely stop it. Nevertheless, the situation remains unpredictable, it is essential to stay up to date with the latest developments.
Observing the simple precautions you can reduce the risk of Contracting or spreading COVID‑19:
Regularly treat arms alcohol or wash them with soap and water. Why is it necessary? If the surface owner have a virus, then hands processing means alcohol or wash them with soap and water will kill it.
Maintain a distance of at least one metre from coughing or sneezing people. Why is it necessary? When you cough or sneeze out of their nose and mouth stand out the smallest the virus-containing drops that person spreading around. Being too close to this person, you may inhale these droplets and become infected from him, including coronavirus infection, if a person is sick COVID-19.
If possible, do not touch your eyes, nose and mouth. Why is it necessary? Hands touch many surfaces, and they can get a virus. Once on the hand, viral particles can get into eyes, nose or mouth. With these parts of the body, the virus can infiltrate the body and cause disease.
Both you and others, should strictly abide by the rules of respiratory hygiene. To do this you must cover your mouth or nose with the crook of the elbow or with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Used wipes must be immediately discarded. Why is it necessary? The virus is transmitted via small droplets. Strictly observing the rules of respiratory hygiene, you can protect others from such viral diseases as SARS, influenza and COVID-19.
If you feel unwell, stay home. With increasing temperature, the cough and difficulty breathing as soon as possible seek medical help.
Follow the instructions of local health authorities. Why is it necessary? The Central and local health authorities have the most up to date information on the situation in your area. Timely treatment for medical assistance will allow medical professionals to quickly guide you to a suitable medical facility. In addition, you can protect yourself and help prevent the spread of viral and other infections.
Watch for updates in the list of high-risk areas for COVID‑19 (city or areas which received widespread COVID‑19). Refrain from trips, especially if you are elderly or suffer from diabetes, heart disease, or lung. Why is it necessary? In these areas you will be exposed to increased risk of infection COVID‑19.
Measures of individual protection for those who recently (within the last 14 days) has visited the regions COVID‑19:
Follow the recommendations presented above (“protection for all”)
If you feel sick, stay home until you recover, even if you have mild symptoms, such as headache, low-grade fever (approximately 37.3°C or higher) or have the sniffles. If you are asking someone to bring you food and follow you to the store, use a mask to not infect anyone who comes to you. Why is it necessary? Refraining from contact with other people and avoid visiting hospitals, you are helping these institutions to work more efficiently and protect yourself and others from possible infection COVID-19 or other viral infections.
If you have a fever, cough and difficulty breathing, do not delay seeking medical carebecause these symptoms can be caused by respiratory infection or other serious disease. Immediately contact the medical facility and inform medical expert about all recent travel or contact with travelling people. Why is it necessary? Timely treatment for medical assistance will allow medical professionals to quickly guide you to a suitable medical facility. In addition, it will help prevent any probable spread of COVID-19 and other viral infections.
As far as I should be afraid of infection COVID‑19?
The level of risk is determined by the place of your stay, but rather the presence or absence of a disease outbreak in the area.
For most people in most regions, the risk of infection COVID‑19 is still small. However, in some parts of the world (cities or districts), the disease continues to spread. The risk of infection is higher for those who live in these areas or visiting them.
Governments and health authorities are taking energetic response to every new case of infection COVID‑19. In the presence of imposed at the local level, travel restrictions, movement or mass events to observe this mode. Supporting measures to control the spread of the disease, you can reduce the risk of infection or spread COVID‑19.
As evidenced by the example of China and some other countries, we can limit the spread of outbreaks and to stop transmission of the disease. Unfortunately, flash can quickly arise in the new homes. It is important to remain aware of the situation in your region or the region you plan to visit. Who daily publishes updated reports on the current epidemiological situation at COVID‑19 all over the world. This information is available at the link.
Whether COVID‑19 concern?
Generally, coronavirus infection COVID‑19 have been mild, especially in children and young adults. However, there are severe infection: about one out of five cases of the sick require hospitalization. Therefore, the concern of people for yourself and loved ones in the outbreak COVID‑19 justified.
We can direct our efforts in a constructive direction and to take measures to protect their own health, the health of our loved ones and people in our community. The most important and primary measure is regular and thorough hand washing and compliance with the rules of respiratory hygiene.
Secondly, it is necessary to follow developments and to follow the recommendations of local health authorities, including to comply with their restrictions on travel, movement, or mass events. Information about precautions for protecting against infection is available here.
Who are at risk of severe disease?
Information about COVID‑19 is not yet complete, but, apparently, severe disease is more frequently noted in the elderly and in people with existing physical illnesses (e.g., hypertension, heart disease, lung cancer or diabetes).
Are antibiotics effective means of prevention and treatment of infections 2019‑nCoV?
No. Antibiotics do not affect viruses, they are active only against bacterial infections. Disease COVID‑19 has a viral nature, so antibiotics are ineffective. You should not use antibiotics for prevention or treatment COVID‑19. Their use is permitted only on prescription for treating bacterial infection.
Are there currently drugs or therapy to prevent or treat COVID-19?
Several tools of Western medicine and traditional folk or home remedies could help to improve the well-being and relief of symptoms COVID-19, however, currently no evidence, which could indicate that the effect of any of the available drugs to prevent or treat the disease.
The who does not recommend self-treatment with any medications, including antibiotics, to prevent or treat infection COVID-19. At the same time conducted clinical trials of several tools of both Western and traditional folk medicine. Who will continue to publish updated information as the emergence of clinical data.
This is the same virus which causes SARS (SARS)?
No. The virus that causes COVID‑19, belongs to the same family of viruses as the causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS‑Cov), but that’s another virus. SARS‑Cov more dangerous but less infectious compared to the pathogen COVID‑19. Since 2003 outbreaks of SARS is not registered anywhere in the world.
Should I wear a mask to protect yourself?
You should wear a mask only if you have symptoms COVID‑19 (particularly cough) or if you are caring for a person who may be sick COVID‑19. Disposable masks should not be reused. If you have no symptoms or you do not take care of the ill person, the use of masks is irrational. Currently in the world there is a shortage of masks, so who calls all to a frugal use.
Who promotes the rational use of medical masks in order to avoid spending valuable resources and improper use of masks.
Among the most effective measures to protect their own health and that of others from COVID‑19 applies frequent hand washing, covering nose and mouth with the crook of the elbow or a tissue when you cough and keeping your distance at least 1 meter from people who are coughing or sneezing. For more information, see about basic precautions to protect against new coronavirus infection.
How to wear, use, remove and discard the mask
To use a mask should only be medical professionals, caregivers, and persons with symptoms of respiratory disease such as high fever and cough.
Before taking the mask in hand, treat their alcohol or wash with soap and water.
Inspect the mask to ensure no holes or damage.
The mask has a metal insert, take the insert mask up.
Place the mask outer side facing away from you (shiny side).
Put the mask on the face. Flex metal insert or locking clip on the nose.
Pull the lower edge of the mask, so she closed her mouth and chin.
Remove the mask after use, hold the mask elastic ear loops, and do not touch it to the face or clothing, used as the mask can be contaminated with microorganisms.
Immediately after use discard the mask into the sealable container.
After touching the mask or her disposal should be hygienic treatment of hands: use of alcohol-containing means, and with the obvious contamination of the hands wash them with soap and water.
How long is the incubation period COVID‑19?
The incubation period is the time period between exposure and appearance of clinical symptoms of the disease. According to most estimates, the incubation period COVID‑19 ranges from 1 to 14 days and usually is about five days. These estimates will be refined as new information becomes available.
Can a person be infected COVID-19 from the animal?
Coronaviruses constitute a large family of viruses and are widely distributed in animals. The people have been infected with these viruses and subsequent transmission to others occurs from time to time. For example, an established fact of human infection with SARS‑Cov from civet, and MERS‑Cov from dromedaries. Possible source 2019‑nCoV among animals is not yet known.
As a measure of individual protection, for example, when you visit the markets selling livestock, avoid direct contact with animals, as well as touch surfaces that come into contact with animals. Should strictly observe regulations for ensuring food safety.
When working with raw meat, milk, animal organs, caution should be exercised to avoid cross contamination of other products not subjected to heat treatment, and, in addition, you should refrain from eating raw or undercooked food of animal origin.
Can I get COVID‑19 pet?
We know of one case of infection of dogs in Hong Kong, however, to date, data on the possibility of infection COVID‑19 from dogs, cats or other Pets do not exist. COVID‑19 mainly spreads through particles in the air that are formed when a sick person coughs, sneezes or speaks. To protect yourself, you must frequently and thoroughly wash hands.
The who continues to closely monitor the results of new studies on how this and other aspects COVID‑19, and will publish updated results as they occur.
How long the virus survives on surfaces?
The duration of virus survival 2019‑nCoV on surfaces is still unknown but it is expected that under this option it is similar to other members of the family of coronaviruses. According to research (including pre-about the pathogen COVID-19), the virus can remain viable on surfaces from a few hours to several days. Specific dates depend on a number of conditions (e.g., surface type, temperature and environment humidity).
If you suspect that a surface may contain a virus, to kill microorganisms and protect yourself and others treat it the conventional disinfectant. Do not forget to handle hands with alcohol or wash them with soap and water. Avoid touching your eyes, mouth or nose.
Is it safe to receive parcels from the district in which the registered cases COVID-19?
Yes. The likelihood that infection can be transmitted from a diseased person via the ordered goods is low, and the risk of infection by a viral pathogen COVID-19 from the packaging, has been moved, the carriage and was under the influence of different weather and temperature conditions.
What I should do?
The following measures do not help to fight COVID‑19 and can cause harm:
simultaneous wearing of multiple masks;
If you have a high fever, cough and shortness of breath to reduce the risk of complications of infection you need to seek medical help and inform medical specialist visited for the last time places.