From mind control to killing: how the CIA tested drugs and poisons on Americans

CIA decades have experienced drugs and poisons on Americans. This information destroyed, but relatives of the victims managed decades to come nearer to the truth. About how U.S. intelligence agencies had achieved mind control and what happened with participants in a secret program, says the guardian.

От контроля над разумом до убийства: как ЦРУ испытывало наркотики и яды на американцах

Photo: Depositphotos

Night November 1953 on Seventh Avenue in Manhattan, there was the sound of breaking glass. After a few seconds on the pavement in front of the hotel Statler fell half-naked man. Up in the room on the tenth floor, the police found Robert Lashbrook senior CIA officer, who said that his colleague jumped out the window in the night. The deceased’s name was Frank Olson, he worked for many years for the U.S. government and was a leading expert in the field of pesticides. After his death, the intelligence services 22 years did not have the accident is irrelevant, and when it has recognized its responsibility, said, it seems that is not the whole truth.

Toxic relationships

Olson was one of the first scientists who were determined to work in the secret laboratories of the CIA. During the Second world war they developed biological weapons: deadly aerosols that can be used as large clouds against clusters of the enemy, and for secret a single murder.

Under Olson, the special forces scientists succeeded in creating a variety of poisons as well as containers for their use. Toxic substances were disguised as shaving cream, insect repellent, medicinal asthma spray… Scientists have developed even lighter, Packed with instantly-killing with poison gas, and lipstick to cause death upon contact with the skin. All this was tested not only on rats and mice, but also in higher primates.

От контроля над разумом до убийства: как ЦРУ испытывало наркотики и яды на американцах

Photo: Depositphotos

In the secret prison of the intelligence services abroad (particularly in Germany) to into the hands of scientists regularly came and the people. As a rule, were suspected of espionage spies or foreign spies. Olson became a witness and experimental methods of torture (with the use of hypnosis, electroshock and drugs) and eventually it exhausted him and pushed them to think about quitting the job.

Dark fortress

Although secret CIA facilities scattered in different parts of the world, the main place of this group of chemists was in the heart of the U.S. military’s Fort Detrick, in less than 100 kilometers from the city of Washington. There still is one of the leading biological laboratories where scientists are struggling with the disease, from ailments affecting the corn crops, to the Ebola virus. Now it is a location surrounded by affluent residential suburb. But then, at the end of the Second world war, he was chosen for the headquarters of the new top-secret project due to the remoteness around the Fort was a wasteland.

Going on at Fort Detrick clearly worth it to hide from prying eyes. Human experimentation there were those who it was not the first time, the team attended the United States exported German scientists with the experience gained in laboratories to concentration camps. Their design, as reported, then helped to improve the medicine. And their war crimes closed my eyes both in the US and around the world: the United States was not the only country to use the achievements of Nazi researchers.

Then, in 1953, us intelligence officers were concerned about not only the chemical and biological weapons (after effective use of the atomic bomb, it had faded into the background). Inflamed cold the flames of confrontation with the Soviet Union. The Communists, as reported intelligence appears to have been in development a secret trump card, the key to world domination: technologies of control over the human mind. Later, the belief is called “collective paranoia,” but then thought about it differently.

Allen DULLES — the same one whose sinister plan is explained to the collapse of the Soviet Union, then headed the CIA. To lead the study, which was to bring US direct control over the minds of the people, he put Sidney Gottlieb. Ironically, lead by former Nazi scientists put the 33-year-old chemist from a family of Jewish immigrants. For subsequent years, Gottlieb became known as the “black sorcerer” and the “dirty trickster” — and the nickname stuck to him is not in vain.

Mental war

In order to “MK-Ultra” was the title of the program was listed a range of impacts on the human mind. The scouts wanted to have the ability to strengthen or weaken the perception and thinking of human being, deprived of his memory in the right period of time, to leave it without normal vision, hearing or ability to move or, conversely, to increase the ability to resist torture and intimidation. They wanted to be able to intervene in the structure of the human personality, to change it, weakening the person, subordinating him to the will of another and even making dependent on another person.

For subsequent years, the group of Gottlieb with the permission of the government held and sanctioned the literally hundreds of thousands of experiments on people. Very often the test subjects became unsuspecting psychiatric patients. Those who have volunteered is not always told what awaits them. Grants these studies were mastered at least 44 College and University, 15 laboratories and pharmaceutical companies, 12 hospitals and 3 prisons.

От контроля над разумом до убийства: как ЦРУ испытывало наркотики и яды на американцах

Photo: Depositphotos

In trying to achieve a mind-control experts used hypnosis, electroshock, sensory deprivation, various forms of torture and psychological pressure, as well as a variety of chemicals that act on the psyche. Of particular interest to them was called opened in 1938 diethylamide of d-lysergic acid (LSD), potent hallucinogenic-psychedelic.

In acid, but not mad

The video, made about 1958, captured another experiment of this program — scientists have wondered about how LSD affects the ability of soldiers to March in formation. When a substance comes into effect, the military volunteers, it becomes difficult to keep up, to turn in the right direction and even keep gravity — they’re laughing, talking and generally look confused.

This harmless experience hardly ended badly for either of the test subjects — most likely, after some time after the expiration of LSD they came back to normal and continued to serve. Many others much less fortunate. “I was immersed in the hallucinations. The room changed shape. I’ve felt paranoia and a thirst for violence, I experienced a nightmare, the walls oozing blood, the people around have turned into skeletons. I thought I was going crazy” — told about their experiences mobster Whitey Bulger, who agreed to repeatedly experience the psychedelic drug while in prison in 1957.

Around the same time the prison doctor in the state of Kentucky was put in isolation seven black prisoners and for 77 days straight and fed them “double, triple and quadruple” dose of LSD — he with the filing of the authorities wanted to test whether this substance completely destroy the human psyche. Information about the fate of these seven men, like many others, remained undiscovered.

And those who with the light hand of Sidney Gottlieb got his dose of substance, “mind-expanding” (the meaning “psychedelic drug”), it was really a lot — it was given, offered and secretly mixed into the public service workers, military, intelligence officers, ordinary people and doctors.

One of those who agreed to the test was the Stanford student Ken Kesey worked in a hospital. In 1959, he experienced an LSD trip under the supervision of psychiatrists and this experience led him to create the book “one Flew over the cuckoo’s nest”. Kizi so fond of this substance, together with friends organized the nomadic hippy commune “Merry pranksters” across the States and distributing stamps with hallucinogen everyone.

He became the voice of protest for his generation, who fought for freedom and justice. I believe that the CIA unwittingly contributed to the American “psychedelic revolution” — the proliferation of LSD, among other factors, led to a mass revolt against the war, the state and the established social norms.

The fate of the poisoner

Hostility to CIA activities, to his own work — perhaps that is what made Frank Olson, a victim of his colleagues. In 1953, at the start of the “MK-Ultra”, he told his wife that gives up on his life and feels psychological pressure from what he does. Relatives were informed that he was in anguish and depression.

Nine days before his death, Olson received an invitation to the party: Gottlieb called him and eight other scientists from the CIA and the army in a country house by a lake Deep Creek. It was a simple place of rest for the team. But this time, a weekend in nature was a new working routine — and the scientists they were in the unusual role of a Guinea.

Their chief added a large dose of the psychedelic in the liqueur “Cointreau” that drank guests and informed them about it only after drinking of the beverage. Experts were very dissatisfied with this surprise, but had nothing to do with it and became very much a hallucinatory state. They all came in for a couple days — in addition to Olson, the depression which has worsened. For several days he repeatedly appealed to his colleagues and superiors in anxiety about his possible departure.

Olson couldn’t come in — have required dismissal, he agreed to stay, going home to family, it is feared that too unstable. The chemist tried to hide from colleagues and even wanted to surrender to the police for some reason thought that it is looking for. It ended up “jumping” from the window of a new York hotel in the third hour of the night.

In order to hush up the circumstances of his death, the CIA had to put pressure on the police. Those do not have to investigate the death of a scientist who knew about what was happening at Fort Detrick, and foreign U.S. prisons and jails, and may have had access to evidence of the use by Americans of biological weapons during the Korean war. Olson buried in a closed coffin. About a bad LSD trip the family of the victim became known only after two decades — and the whole truth native not received.

Insincere apology

In 1975, the Washington Post told the story of Olson. She could not fail to attract Americans: a scientist from the CIA who had access to classified information, driving suicide after taking the drug in the presence of another intelligence. The wife and children of Olson demanded to open a new investigation and was going to sue the CIA.

It came into dick Cheney’s future Vice-President was then Deputy head of the presidential administration. It is thanks to his initiative, President Gerald Ford understood that if the deal goes through, the investigation will have to reveal highly classified information. Cheney advised the head of state “publicly Express regret and offer Mrs. Olson and her children to a personal meeting.”

От контроля над разумом до убийства: как ЦРУ испытывало наркотики и яды на американцах

Frame: Transformer TV / YouTube

Ford did so and invited the family to the Oval office and apologized. Then Olsoni met with the head of the CIA William Colby. “While some of our people got out of control and went too far. Not enough oversight and governance,” he told them. The white house offered the family $ 750 thousand for the rejection of litigation. They all signed the appropriate paper.

After almost 20 years, in 1994, the son of Frank Olson, Eric became suspicious and made the exhumation of the body. The medical examiner confirmed his suspicion: while the body of his father fell on his back, on his forehead, above his left eye, had a fractured skull. Apparently, concluded the doctor, from the window threw it out already unconscious, and before it hit something on the head.

Descendants of Olson can’t sue a state they have signed the appropriate paper. But they at least know about what happened to their father. Most of the data on the program “MK-Ultra”, uniting more than a hundred different projects, not just locked up somewhere: in 1972 the “black sorcerer” Sidney Gottlieb, in anticipation of the dismissal, ordered the destruction of most of the records. This might have provided him a peaceful old age — the last years he spent on the farm in Virginia, taking care of the goats.

Investigation based on the accident saved the data, did result: some of the victims paid compensation. Besides, now in the American legislation there are strict rules for human trials — subjects must give informed consent.

Today it is difficult to understand why the CIA is so inhuman they treated fellow citizens, why did you try to get into the minds of the people and change the human mind, why killed your own employee. But the hard realities of the cold war — a war in the full sense of the word, with secret soldiers, information fronts and ideological gains sometimes demanded tough action. From the point of view of the scouts Olson was a real worrier, who betrayed the common cause, and can not cope with its high duties for the protection of the homeland and the free world from communism. We can say that Olson, in which awake human feelings, became another victim of the cold war, which did not need heroes — she needed soldiers.

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