February 4 is world cancer day. Strictly speaking, a disease like “cancer” does not exist. A term that describes over 200 different diseases in which normal cells begin to multiply abnormally, forming a rapidly growing tumor and can infect adjacent organs. About it writes BBC.
Despite the fact that the death rate from cancer is falling for the past quarter-century, cancer remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. While you read this text, the cancer already managed to claim a few lives.
In 2018, the cancer was diagnosed almost 18 million people. Of these, nearly 5 million cases the disease can be detected at an earlier stage — and therefore earlier treatment and make it more effective.
“We want people to know that many cancers are treatable and even curable, especially if as early as possible to detect the disease and start therapy”, — stressed the head of the Union for international cancer control Cary Adams.
For example, if cervical cancer is diagnosed at a late stage, the chances of the patient to live another five years does not exceed 15%. However, if the disease is detected early, the figure rises to 93%.
It is therefore important to be screened regularly. Although in Britain, for example, according to the survey, every fourth patient doesn’t want to go to the doctor precisely because afraid to hear the terrible diagnosis.
The nidus can be located in any organ and take a variety of forms. However, there are some symptoms and warning signs, noticing which, should as soon as possible to go to the doctor.
Reasons for concern:
Unusual nodules of tissue, bloating and swelling. You need to remember that cancers are often painless, especially at the early stages of the disease. Special attention should be paid to the neck, testes and mammary glands in women, and armpits.
Lingering cough, shortness of breath or difficulty swallowing.
Changes in usual bowel habits. Sudden onset constipation or, on the contrary, frequent bouts of diarrhea — especially if the chair can be seen traces of blood.
Unexpected bleeding , including a small allocation of blood from the vagina, the rectum, the inclusion of blood in the urine or sputum when you cough.
Unexplained weight loss. If you unexpectedly lost a lot of weight in a relatively short period of time (about a couple of months), is cause for concern and a trip to the doctor. In addition to cancer, sudden weight loss can signal a serious malfunction of the thyroid gland or development of diabetes.
Chronic fatigue and catastrophic lack of energy to do things, despite normal sleep. Usually, if the cause of chronic fatigue in the beginning of cancer disease, the patient manifested other symptoms.
Unexplained pain — of any nature and periodicity: as acute attacks, and aching; both chronic and emerging only occasionally.
The appearance of new moles or existing transformation: changes in size, shape or color; hardening the surface of a birthmark or any discharge.
Problems with urination, including more frequent or more urgent urination, and difficulty or pain in the process.
Unusual changes in the breast. Concern can be a sudden change in the size or shape of the breast, and changes in sensations when touched, including the skin of the breast, or pain.
Loss of appetite. If you have permanently lost my sense of hunger and you eat less than usual, it is also an alarming signal, even if you have no other symptoms.
Non-healing sore , or other wound, especially in the mouth.
Chronic heartburn or other regular digestive disorders — nausea, vomiting, bloating and others.
Profuse sweating at night.
How to reduce cancer risk
The appearance of cancer can be triggered by both genetic predisposition and external factors, including ionizing radiation, chemicals-carcinogens (e.g., asbestos or arsenic), or disease-causing organisms.
To protect from cancer, but you can significantly reduce the risk of cancer. For this who experts give five tips.
Avoid Smoking and tobacco smoke. Warning, written in large letters on cigarette packs, did not get there just like that. Smoking or chewing tobacco can cause not only lung cancer but also cancer of the larynx, prostate, pancreas, kidney, bladder and other organs.
Safe sex and medical procedures. The viruses that can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, is transmitted sexually and via blood, for example sharing needles or medical instruments reusable.
Regularly go through a test. Ideally, a complete preventive medical examination should be held every six months.
Vaccinate. For a small fee or even for free, you can put an inoculation from a hepatitis, human papillomavirus and other diseases that at the same time will significantly reduce the risk of some types of cancer.
A healthy diet and active lifestyle. A balanced diet with plenty of vegetables and fruits, good sleep and at least a little regular exercise will help you improve your immunity and to avoid many diseases — including cancer.