Immigration, taxes, guns: important laws in force in the United States in 2020

The new year will bring new payments to certain owners of electric vehicles, as more and more States seek to connect to additional sources of income to compensate for taxes on gasoline. Hawaii fee will be $ 50 Kansas — $ 100, in Alabama and Ohio, $ 200. What other laws will come into force in 2020 in the United States? Tells CNBC.

Иммиграция, налоги, оружие: важные законы, вступающие в силу в США в 2020 году

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New or higher fees come into effect on Wednesday, January 1, and will affect them in at least 8 States. For the first time in most U.S. States will be charged special fees for bisbenzene cars, SUVs and trucks is a significant step, as the trend towards “green” technologies intersect with a growing need to pay for modernization and repair of infrastructure at the level of the whole country.

Despite the fact that in 2018, sales of electric and hybrid vehicles with plug-ins was less than 2% of all sales of new machines, their market share is forecast to increase significantly in the next decade. State officials hope the new fees will make up, at least a portion of the lost tax revenue from gasoline, which is necessary for their road and bridge programs.

“I think the States are still trying to determine what is fair or equitable fee from the owners of these electric vehicles,” said Kristy Hartman, Director of the energy program of the National conference of state legislatures.

The introduction of fees for electric vehicles is one of several social trends that are reflected in the laws entering into force in 2020.

21 the state will increase its minimum wage to $ 12 an hour or more. Illinois will become the 11th state to legalize recreational marijuana for adults. California will join about 10 States that have extended the deadline for submission of the claim or the prosecution of sexual violence in the past.

Still, the Federal government and some States offered people incentives to buy electric cars. But the Federal tax benefit is gradually reduced for some of the most popular models created by Tesla and General Motors, and some States are also changing course.

Illinois, for example, offered a two-year license plates for electric cars for $ 35 — a significant discount compared to its main annual registration fee of 98 dollars. According to the law, according to which are charged as registration fees and fuel taxes, the owners of electric vehicles will have to pay a new base annual rate of $ 148 plus an extra $ 100, intended to compensate for lost fuel taxes.

“It’s kind of total punishment for all who decide to switch to electricity, said ned Delia, the owner of Tesla, which was founded in Chicago a group of supporters of electric vehicles.

Three-quarters of revenue from new fees for electric vehicles in the amount of $ 200 and the fee for hybrid models in the $ 100 to Alabama will go to funding state and local roads and bridges. Another quarter will Finance grants for the infrastructure of electric chargers and will expire when the electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles will exceed 4% of all vehicles in the state.

The fee is intended to provide “more than just fairness to maintenance and construction of infrastructure,” said the Republican from Alabama bill Poole, who sponsored the bill. “I think this is an important step from the point of view of planning for the future,” he added.

Since the average distance travelled by the electric vehicle vary, it is difficult to establish universal fair payment for electric vehicles, says Lauren McDonald, an analyst from California, manages the website EV Adoption.

“States are actually very reasonable in this matter,” said MacDonald, noting that some States charge less than the vehicle owners could pay for fuel taxes.

New or higher fees for electric vehicles, entering into force in 2020, will also apply to Iowa, Oregon and Utah. California, which accounts for almost half of all car sales in the United States, must collect $ 100 with new cars with zero emissions, starting from 1 July.

Here are some famous laws that come into force on 1 January:

The use of force by police

The oldest law of the country governing when police can use deadly force, received the update in California. The result of these changes, the American civil liberties Union called one of the strongest in the United States. Previous California law allowed the use of lethal force when the officers were “reasonable fear” for their safety. The new law will allow to protect against imminent threat of death or serious injury to officers or witnesses only in case of necessity, but it does not include a definition of this “need”.

Another new California law enhances the training of officers for work with the confrontations. Changes occurred after police Sacramento in 2018 to death shot … Stefanie Clark, 22-year-old black, a suspect in the vandalism, which led to large protests.

Vaccinations

A new California law promises stricter controls on doctors who prescribe medical branches for vaccination of schoolchildren. The law has sparked legislative debates and attracted hundreds of supporters and opponents to the Capitol last year. This will allow the state to keep control of doctors that provide medical more than 5 taps per year, and schools with vaccination rates below 95%, which, according to experts, means that the population is resistant to diseases such as measles. The law will gradually eliminate the existing medical exclusion in the coming years.

Weapons

The law “red flag” of Colorado will resolve family, intimate partners or law enforcement to go to court with the petition for seizure of weapons from people they consider a threat to themselves or others. the Exemption may be extended for up to 364 days, and the burden of proof for return of the weapon lies with the owner.

The bill was supported by Democrat Tom Sullivan, whose son Alex Sullivan was killed during the shooting in the cinema “Aurora” in 2012. Some Republican lawmakers and a group of gun owners in the Rocky mountains sued for trying to block the law, and about 12 of the 64 districts in the state adopted resolutions declaring themselves “sanctuaries” of the 2nd amendment in response to this. Some sheriffs said that they would not execute the court orders.

The law of Tennessee, in contrast, can facilitate people obtaining permits to carry concealed weapons. The law provides for a less expensive option of obtaining a permit that requires no training in shooting firearms, and instead allows people to host online courses on fire safety.

Immigration

Arkansas will be the last state that entered into the debate on national immigration since the new law cuts discretionary funding for cities of refuge, which do not cooperate with Federal immigration authorities. Other the Republican-led States have passed similar laws. In contrast, some States, led by Democrats, had passed laws about the shelters prohibiting local law enforcement officers to ask questions about immigration status or notifying the Federal authorities when an immigrant is going to release from custody.

The vote

The law of the state of North Carolina change request process and filling out ballots by mail in response to an investigation of fraud during the electoral race in the district of the United States in 2018, which led to re-election in 2019. Most of the new law was aimed at a practice called “collecting the ballots” where fraudsters have collected hundreds of absentee ballots from voters and forged signatures or filled voice. The new law will hold the confidential information of people who request absentee ballots prior to the actual election day.

Opioids

At least 7 States will begin to require electronic prescriptions for controlled substances such as opioids. Movement, designed to get rid of handwritten prescriptions — one of the many steps that States are taking to try to curb opioid addiction and overdose.

New laws take effect in Arizona, Iowa, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Rhode island and Tennessee, mean that now such rules are in effect in 12 States. VA should implement the law in July, and another 13 States have adopted legislation on electronic prescriptions that should enter into force in 2021.

Privacy policy

The California measure, described as the biggest data privacy law will require many companies to inform users on request about what personal data about them is collected, why, and what other organizations they receive. Consumers can ask companies to delete their personal information and not to sell it. The law also prohibits companies to sell data relating to children under the age of 16 without consent. The economic analysis prepared for the Prosecutor General’s office estimated the total cost of initial compliance with the law in $ 55 billion.

Another new California law would forbid the police to use the software in wearable cameras for face recognition, following the same laws in new Hampshire and Oregon.

The Illinois law seeks to shed light on the use of artificial intelligence during the recruitment process. Employers who ask applicants to self-record a video interview and to submit them for consideration, will have to notify applicants and obtain their consent if they intend to use artificial intelligence to analyze facial expressions or suitability for the position.

Taxes

20 years after the approval of the voters of Massachusetts will make the final reduction of the income subject to tax. In 2000 it was about lowering tax rates ranging from 5.95% to 5% by 2003. But lawmakers froze the rate at 5.3 percent in 2002 and passed a law to gradually resume a decline if the state reaches certain benchmarks of income. Under these conditions, the tax rate finally falls to 5% in 2020.

In Missouri, the law on corporate income tax, signed in the last hours before the former Governor Eric Greitens resigned in may 2018, will enter into force in 2020. The law will reduce the corporate income tax rate Missouri from 6.25% to 4%, making it one of the lowest in the country. But another provision in the law will do away with the possibility of calculating corporate income, which may lead to increase in tax collections in Missouri for some companies, working with several States.

Paid vacation

Employees in Washington state will be able to apply for leave in accordance with the new state law on paid family leave. Businesses and workers pay for the program, approved by the Legislative Assembly in 2017, over the past year, with wage supplements. Starting in 2020, employees, eligible for assistance, will be able to take 12 weeks of paid leave for the birth or adoption of a child or for serious medical condition of employee or family member or 16 weeks for the combination of both. Washington was the 5th state to enact a law on paid family leave, which in July will be followed by DC. Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine and Oregon have passed laws which come into effect from 2021 to 2023.