In the night of Monday, October 28, in the British city of Cambridge died a famous human rights activist and novelist Vladimir Bukovsky. He was 76 years About this TASS reported the press service of the organization Bukovsky Center (“Bukovsky center”).
“He died at 21:30 GMT (00:30 GMT) at the hospital, “Addenbrookes”, – said the representative of the press service of the organization. According to information released in a press release, the death was caused by a heart attack. The press service noted that in recent years, Bukovsky was experiencing health problems.
Vladimir Bukovsky was born on 30 Dec 1942 in evacuation in the town of Belebey, Bashkir ASSR, in the family of the famous Soviet writer and journalist Konstantin Bukovsky. His first conflict with the government occurred in 1959 for participation in the publication of a handwritten magazine, he was expelled from school. In 1960 he, along with Yuri Galanskov, Eduard Kuznetsov and others becoming one of the organizers of the regular meetings of young people at the monument to the poet Mayakovsky in Central Moscow.
After the arrests of several activists of “Mayakovka” from Bukovsky was searched and seized his essay on the necessity of democratization of the Komsomol (subsequently this document has been classified by the investigator as “theses on the collapse of the Komsomol”). Bukovsky, who by the time he entered the biological faculty of Moscow University, was not allowed to the session and at the end of 1961 was expelled from the University.
In 1962, Bukovsky was diagnosed with “sluggish schizophrenia”, and later he was examined by Western psychiatrists and deemed healthy. In the same year during the trial of activists of “Mayakovka” there was a threat of a criminal case against him, and he went to the geological expedition to Siberia, where he spent six months.
In 1963, he was first arrested for making two photocopies of a book by Yugoslav dissident Milovan Djilas of the “New class”, banned in the Soviet Union. He was found insane and sent for compulsory treatment in the Leningrad special psychiatric hospital; there he met with the disgraced General Petro Grigorenko, and subsequently entered it in a dissident circle. Freedom Bukovsky was released in February 1965.
In early December 1965, took an active part in the preparation of the “meeting of publicity” in defence of Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuly Daniel, for that was again detained and forcibly admitted to psychiatric hospitals Lyubertsy. After a few months he was sent to the Serbsky Institute, where he stayed for 8 months. In the West, was organized a broad campaign in support of Bukowski, which arrived in Moscow the representative of the international organization Amnesty International, who managed to secure his release in August 1966.
The third time was arrested for organising a demonstration to protest against the arrest of Alexander Ginzburg, Yuri Galanskov and their friends, held on 22 January 1967 in Pushkin square in Moscow. At the trial in Moscow city court Bukovsky has not only refused to plead guilty, but said a diatribe that was widely circulated in samizdat. The court sentenced him to three years in camps under article 190.3 of the RSFSR criminal code (active participation in group actions violating public order).
After serving his term in the camp, Bukovsky in January 1970 he returned to Moscow and immediately became one of the leaders evolved over the years in his absence dissident circle. A short time of his stay in freedom (little more than a year) he worked as a literary Secretary, including the writer Vladimir Maximov. Bukovsky gave several interviews to Western reporters in which he disclosed his point of view about political prisoners undergoing psychiatric repression, making the issue of punitive medicine public. In 1971, Bukovsky addressed a letter to foreign psychiatrists and attach the documents at 150 pages, testifying about the abuse of psychiatry for political purposes in the USSR.
The documents submitted to Bukovsky, provided the copies of conclusions of forensic psychiatric examinations of six well-known dissidents, recognized in the USSR insane, Peter Grigorenko, Natalia Gorbanevskaya, Valeriya Novodvorskaya, etc. as a result of Western psychiatrists for the first time got the opportunity to study copies of the psychiatric diagnoses of the Soviet psychiatrists involved in abuses, to study their diagnostic methods. On the basis of these documents a group of British psychiatrists concluded that the diagnoses of these six dissidents were exhibited for purely political reasons.
March 29, 1971, Bukovsky was arrested for the fourth time. Before his arrest in the newspaper “Pravda” published an article in which the advocate has been called “the worst bully, engaged in anti-Soviet activities.” An article in the newspaper, the circulation of which was then in the tens of millions of copies, brought Bukovsky famous throughout the Soviet Union.
The trial of Bukovsky took place on 5 January 1972 in Moscow city court. For “anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda”, he was sentenced to 7 years imprisonment (to be served the first two years in prison) and 5 years of exile – the maximum sentence under article 70.1 of the criminal code of the RSFSR.
Served a term in Vladimir prison, then in the colony of Perm-36. While in custody, in collaboration with his solvernia, psychiatrist Semyon Gluzman, wrote “a Manual on psychiatry for dissidents” – a guide designed to help those authorities are trying to declare insane. In 1974, Bukovsky returned to Vladimir prison as a “malicious violator of the regime”. 18 December 1976, Bukovsky was exchanged for Chilean most famous political prisoner, the leader of the Communist party of Chile, Luis Corvalan.
Shortly after his expulsion from the USSR Bukovsky settled in Britain, graduated from Cambridge University with a degree in “neurophysiology”. Wrote a book of memories “And the wind returns” (1978), published in many languages, and the book “letters of a Russian traveler” (1980), devoted to the impressions of life in the West and compare it with the Soviet regime.
Bukovsky continued to actively engage in political activities: he was one of the organizers of the campaign to boycott the Moscow Olympics-80. In 1983, together with the writer Vladimir Maximov, a former political prisoner Eduard Kuznetsov and Cuban dissident Armando Valladares participated in the creation of an international anti-Communist organization “international resistance”, was elected its President. Participated in the organization of propaganda in the address of the Limited contingent of Soviet troops entered in December 1979 in Afghanistan.
In April 1991, Bukovsky for the first time after the expulsion visited Moscow at the invitation of Boris Yeltsin. In September 1991, again visited the Soviet Union, was adopted by the KGB Chairman Vladimir Bakatin; by his own admission, were taken from the building of the former Central Committee of the Communist party of more than 3 thousand pages of secret documents. In the summer of 1992 Bukovsky was invited by a group of deputies of the Moscow city Council candidate for the post of mayor of Moscow, but recused himself. In October 1993 he supported the dispersal of Congress of people’s deputies and the Supreme Soviet of Russia.
In 2004, Vladimir Bukovsky co-founded the socio-political “Committee 2008: Free choice”, which also included Garry Kasparov, Boris Nemtsov, Vladimir Kara-Murza (Jr.), Yevgeny Kiselyov and other opposition politicians in Russia.
In 2007 Bukovsky received a new Russian passport and was nominated for the presidency of the Russian Federation of democratic opposition in the 2008 election. The CEC rejected the application of Bukowski, citing the refusal Bukovsky residence outside the territory of the Russian Federation for the last 10 years and lack of documents confirming his occupation. 10 Mar 2010 Bukovsky signed a petition Russian opposition to Russian citizens “Putin must go”.
In the spring of 2011 Bukovsky has filed a lawsuit in a London court with the requirement to prohibit the departure of Mikhail Gorbachev from the United Kingdom in connection with the prosecution on charges of crimes allegedly committed in the post of General Secretary of the Communist party in Baku, Tbilisi and Vilnius. These efforts were not successful.
In March 2014, the consular Department of the Russian Embassy in London instead of changing the passport Bukovsky (the validity of which expired in 2012) began checking the presence of his citizenship of the Russian Federation. The Russian Embassy in London could not confirm the nationality of Bukowski, telling him to get a Russian visa on the British passport. In November 2014 the Ministry of foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation upheld the refusal of the Russian Embassy in London to give Bukowski a new passport and explained that considered him a citizen of Russia.
In October 2014, UK police raided the house Bukowski’s in Cambridge, after it became known that the computer in this house, were visits to sites with child pornography. On the electronic devices in the house Bukovsky was discovered about twenty thousand photos and videos of minors, including babies (in the words of the Prosecutor himself Bukovsky told the police that he downloaded images of children only if they were at least six-seven years).
27 April 2015, the UK crown prosecution service has charged Bukovsky charged with possession and manufacture (under “manufacture” refers to downloading from the Internet on the rigid carrier accused) of child pornography. Then Bukovsky told about his serious illness, explaining that “the chances of recovery are very uncertain”. 7 may 2015 Bukovsky in Germany, had surgery on the heart, which replaced two valves.
In August 2015 Bukovsky has filed a lawsuit against the crown prosecution service of great Britain, accusing her of defamation. 20 APR 2016 Bukovsky declared a hunger strike, demanding the withdrawal of charges, which charged him with UK law enforcement agencies. The charges were not dismissed, and July 28, 2016, London’s High court rejected the prosecution Bukowski address crown prosecution service, since it informed, as found by the court not declared the participation Bukowski sexual acts directly against children, as well as in the presence of such actions or taking photos of such actions. The Prosecutor explained to the court that Bukovsky was accused of nothing more than “committing the elements of these crimes” – on the “five cases of making indecent photographs of children” as well as five cases of “possession of such photographs.” Bukovsky called the High court’s decision outrageous.
12 December 2016 in Cambridge began the trial in the case. At the first court session it was discovered that most of the files containing child pornography found on the computer Bukovsky, never played in video players and did not open in apps for photo viewing.
According to the Prosecutor, there is no indication that indecent images of children were posted on computers Bukovsky from the outside. The Prosecutor also said that Bukovsky told the police that in the late 1990-ies he became interested in the problem of control and censorship on the Internet, including in connection with the distribution of child pornography, and the study of this question studied the availability and content of sites with child porn. According to the Prosecutor, Bukovsky showed that “he believed that he had not hurt anyone and did not commit any crimes, considering these images” and that over time this interest developed into a hobby, akin to “stamp collecting”.
The trial of Bukovsky was postponed several times in connection with his condition. In July 2017, it was postponed until February 2018. 12 February 2018 the trial were suspended for health reasons Bukovsky.