Lost power ‘Pharaoh’: died, the President of Egypt, normalizable relations with Israel

Hosni Mubarak was primarily military, but as President of Egypt, he consistently strove for peace, writes the BBC.

Потерявший власть 'фараон': умер президент Египта, нормализовавший отношения с Израилем

Photo: Shutterstock

Under him Egypt has played a leading role in finding a peaceful solution to the middle East conflict. Had normalized relations with Israel.

But Mubarak was criticized for the use of a state of emergency to suppress political opponents, and the unwillingness or inability to fight corruption.

In 2011 a popular uprising forced him to leave power after 30-year rule.

Military pilot

Mohammed Hosni Sayyid Mubarak born 4 may 1928 in the small village of Kafr El‑Masalha governorship Menoufia in the North of Egypt.

He was born into a poor family, but despite this, he entered the military Academy, from which he graduated with honors in 1949. He was awarded the rank of Lieutenant, and in 1952 he was assigned to a fighter squadron.

In 1959, a young officer visited the Soviet Union, which was the main supplier of weapons to Egypt, and obtained the qualification of a pilot jet tactical bomber Il-28.

The war “judgment day”

The second time Mubarak was in the Soviet Union in 1964-65, the years after the course of staff training at the Military Academy named after Frunze.

In 1965, he commanded the aviation brigade and was the chief of the air base in Cairo.

Combat pilot, took part in the Arab-Israeli war of 1967. Then the Egyptian aircraft suffered a heavy defeat and was almost completely destroyed.

In 1969, President Gamal Abdel Nasser did Mubarak chief of staff of the air force.

In 1972, Mubarak was appointed commander of the air force and Deputy Minister of defense of Egypt, and in 1973 he received the title of chief Marshal of aviation.

For the post of commander of the Egyptian air force, Mubarak has played a leading role in preparing a surprise attack on Israeli forces in the Sinai Peninsula at the beginning of the Yom Kippur war in 1973.

Again the war ended with the defeat of Egypt and its allies. But air operations that supported the air offensive of the Egyptian armored vehicles, which managed to cross the Suez canal, is called respect for the Egyptians and Hosni Mubarak became a national hero.

Attempt

Two years later, his reward was the appointment to the post of Vice-President. From President Anwar Sadat was required to appoint a Deputy, and he preferred to choose as assistants popular figure.

Mubarak was involved in negotiating the terms of the camp David peace agreement between Egypt and Israel, which was signed by Sadat and the Prime Minister of Israel Menachem begin in 1979.

This agreement has split the Egyptian society. Radical groups felt that the interests of the country slighted. Among these groups were “Muslim Brothers” who committed the assassination of Sadat in October 1981, in which he died.

His place was taken by Hosni Mubarak. On elections, he was unopposed and received 98% of votes.

The new President, however, did not abandon the camp David accords, opposed itself to the fledgling Islamists and extremist groups from time to time continued to remind myself in Egypt, attacks on government institutions and the tourist industry.

“American puppet”

Although derived in the USSR, military training and Russian language skills, Mubarak sought to establish ties with the West.

Mediation in the Arab-Israeli settlement was determined the foreign policy of Mubarak all the years of his rule and strengthened his Alliance with the United States, which provided Egypt weapons worth billions of dollars.

Opponents called Mubarak the American puppet. Supporters rejoiced in the relative stability brought by his rule to Egypt, located in the heart of an unstable Middle East.

At the same time Mubarak has managed to deduce Egypt from isolation in the Arab world for several years turned away from the reunion of the camp David agreement.

Egypt was expelled from Arab League in 1979 and restored its membership in 10 years. The company’s head office returned to the banks of the Nile.

In Egypt, the continued repression against the opposition parties and groups, arrests and torture of dissidents. Elections, according to critics of the regime was accompanied by widespread fraud.

Iraq

The invasion of Kuwait by Iraq in August 1991 came as a blow to Mubarak, who argued that Saddam Hussein personally promised him not to attack Kuwait.

Egypt supported international sanctions against Iraq and offered military aid to coalition forces in the operation against Saddam. That, in turn, called for the overthrow of the Mubarak government.

Egypt’s position brought him considerable profit. The country has written off the external debt worth billions of dollars. But after 12 years, Mubarak reacted to the us invasion of Iraq is critical.

In Egypt, with rare exceptions, the situation was calm, but the standard of living of the common people remained low. Mubarak has managed to attract foreign investment, but the fruits of this policy, the majority of residents did not feel.

Mubarak was re-elected to the presidency in 1987, 1993 and 1999, where he was the only candidate. But in the 2005 election, he had rivals.

Resigned

After winning the Palestinian Islamic movement Hamas of Egypt supported Israel and Western countries in the introduction of the embargo against authority, closed the checkpoint “Rafah” on the border with Gaza.

But Mubarak is increasingly heard appeals both from Egypt and outside that it is time to give way to democracy.

In January 2011, following the example of Tunisia in Egypt began mass protests that lasted several weeks. People were unhappy with poverty, corruption, unemployment and the regime of personal power.

Mubarak has promised not to participate in the upcoming presidential election, but it was not enough. After 18 days of unrest of the people, which compared with ancient Egyptian pharaohs, has resigned of the head of state.

Four months later, already a sick Mubarak had to stand trial. 3 Aug 2011 the first meeting at which the ex-President lying on the mobile bed, listened to charges of corruption and intentionally killing protesters.

In June 2012, Mubarak was sentenced to life in prison for giving orders to use force against the demonstrators, but was acquitted on the other counts.

The court’s decision seemed to many to be too soft and caused demonstrations on the streets of Cairo.

The vicissitudes of fate

The fate of Hosni Mubarak again changed dramatically in July 2013, when a former military Minister in his Cabinet field Marshal Fattah al-Sisi overthrew and arrested the elected year earlier President, the Islamist Mohammed Morsi. After a month and the court ruled to release the former leader out of jail and sent him under house arrest in a military hospital in Cairo.

In November of the same year Hosni Mubarak was acquitted on charges related to the death of protesters, for procedural reasons, charges were brought against him too late.

March 2, 2017 the Supreme court of appeal of Egypt was finally removed from the former President of all charges, and three weeks later he was released from house arrest.

“Until my last breath”

Hosni Mubarak was not as flamboyant as his predecessors Gamal Abdel Nasser and Anwar Sadat, but he was respected as a firm policy, although not Grushevskogo repressive apparatus of the state to suppress dissent.

Mubarak managed to find a balance between peace with Israel and the attitude of society, as well as historical relations with the Arab countries dhuime that was very challenging.

He was able to prove that historical enemies can coexist, and gave hope to his country and the Middle East.

Once Hosni Mubarak promised that he would serve Egypt until his last breath.

In February 2011 he said, “In this dear to my heart country I lived, I fought and defended its independence and interests. On this earth I’ll die. Judge me as others, will be history.”

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