On the basis of characteristics of a person and her emotions, researchers from the Netherlands Institute for neuroscience in Amsterdam has identified five types of insomnia. The obtained results can pave the way for a better understanding of the causes of sleep problems, as well as to develop more personalized treatments for this disease, according to a paper published in the journal The Lancet Psychiatry.
According to the National institutes of health, from insomnia suffer approximately 10% of the population of the entire planet. The main symptoms include difficulty falling asleep or problems with the sleep. But despite the presence of similar symptoms, response to treatment of this disease in humans can be quite different. In addition, the researchers argue that attempts to find this condition common features in the brain scans proved futile. These inconsistencies gave scientists a reason to assume the possibility of the existence of several types of insomnia.
In the study, experts analyzed information from more than 4,000 people who filled out online surveys about the features of their sleep. According to the responses received about 2,000 of the participants suffered from insomnia, although I have not had a confirmed diagnosis.
To determine the types of insomnia, the researchers examined not only the symptoms associated with sleep, but other factors, including personality characteristics, mood, emotions and reactions to stressful events in life.
The study authors found that the participants who had insomnia, usually fit into one of the following five categories.
Type 1: People with insomnia type 1 usually have a high level of stress (which means a high level of negative emotions such as anxiety and restlessness), and a low level of happiness.
Type 2: People with insomnia are 2 types had moderate levels of stress, but their levels of happiness and feelings of positive emotions remained at the average level.
Type 3: People with insomnia 3 types had moderate levels of stress, low level of happiness and lack of ability to enjoy life.
Type 4: People with insomnia are 4 types, as a rule, had lower stress levels, but often have experienced long-term insomnia in response to a stressful event in life.
Type 5: People with insomnia 5 type had a low level of stress, and stressful life events had no effect on the disorder of their sleep.
Five years after the first survey, the scientists repeated it again for the same participants. The results showed that the majority of them over time have kept all of the same type.
The researchers also found that people with different types of insomnia differ in the degree of response to treatment and risk of depression. For example, people with types 2 and 4 showed improvement of sleep after taking the tranquilizer benzodiazepine, while people with type 3 marked improvement in their condition after taking this drug.
In addition, people with type 2 good response to cognitive-behavioral therapy, and people with the type 4, on the contrary, there was no positive response to this treatment. People with type 1 had the highest risk of developing depression in their lifetime.
The results show that specific treatments of insomnia can be more efficient for certain types. Therefore, scientists believe that future research should be directed to selection of individual treatment for patients.