Linguist, teacher of foreign languages and cultures Christina Constantinova post to Twitter amazing facts about the English language. Foreign languages are her thing since childhood, books and movies she prefers the original language. Interested in the history of the language and collects unusual facts about him. About the peculiarities of the English language Christina said Adme.ru.
Why the names of animals and their meat are different (like cow — beef, pig — pork, calf — veal)? Yes, because from 1066 to 1399 (that is, from William the Conqueror to Henry IV) all the nobility spoke French. But the common people used Anglo-Saxon speech. Leaves, grown animals the peasants, speak English, and when they (animals) came cooked to the table of nobles, the meat acquired a French name.
The French, as we know, the British don’t really like. And here is what we have called “to leave in English”, the English call to take French leave. And the French like to say filer à l anglaise.
When you study the articles, you just said that they are not used with people’s names. Lied shamelessly. You can use, but rarely. For example, THE Alexander Petrov will mean exactly the SAME Alexander Petrov, and not just Sasha from the first entrance. But the indefinite article “a” before the name will mean “just some”. Type there has come to you some Alexander Petrov (an Alexander Petrov).
Many people mistakenly believe that in English all turn each other on you (you) and in language there is no form of “you”. Technically, it is just the opposite. Remember, the form of the 2nd person of the verb matches the plural. The word “you” was thou / thee. Now not used.
Generally, in English there is no concept of the kind of inanimate objects, but when you talk about ships, they are referred to as she — “she”.
Where without pronunciation. X in the beginning of a word is almost always read as a Z, so “Zirax” and not “Xerox” (zeeuh-roks), well and on a trifle: xylophone — zai-luh-fown, xenophobia — zeh-nuh-fow-bee-uh. And Yes, warrior Princess from our childhood — English ZINE.
If we are talking about powerful women. Firm Nike named after the goddess of victory, so in the English speaking world is known as “Nike” not “Nike”.
English spelling and pronunciation sometimes hurt. For example, there are words though, rough, cough, through, bough, thorough. The last 4 letters are the same, but not one word from this list does not rhyme with the others.
The sign & is called ampersand, @ — at (not the dog, please!), # is actually called an octothorpe, or octo, but no one in their right mind do not call, the hashtag has taken root perfectly.
A moment of mnemonics. Confused in little / a little / few / a few? What is important here: little and few — “few”, “not enough”, but a little and a few — “few”, but more will come. How to remember? In a little and a few letters more than the little and few, that means they value more.
False friends of the translator. Inexhaustible subject. Sympathy is “empathy”not “sympathy”, fabric — “fabric” and not “factory” prospect “prospect” and not the “prospectus” biscuit — “biscuit” instead of “biscuit” finally accurate is “accurate” not “accurate”.
In English highly developed lovastatina, giving birth to the so-called “word magnet”consists of 2 parts. Brunch = breakfast + lunch, smog = smoke + fog, Qatar, by the way, this is also Tanganyika + Zanzibar. Well, from the latest — Megxit. Gracefully!
If someone’s husband or wife goes to the public house, do not rush to judge. Public house, meaning “place of gathering of the public,” is now reduced to familiar words pub, where, however, go both husbands and wives. But a public house is a brothel.
Favorite stone of stumbling is the word Dutch. It’s not a “Danish” and “Dutch” (or “Dutch” is new?). Danish — Danish. With the word Dutch has 2 cool expression. To go Dutch is to “split the bill at the restaurant,” when everyone pays for themselves. Dutch courage — or “drinking for courage”, or the state itself courage after drinking.
About American English. There is a wonderful name Mikey-alcoholic — Wife-beater. Literally “battered wife.” I feel, soon the radical movement will get to this and the word outlaw. In England t — shirt- vest, and in America, vest vest. While in England waistcoat — waistcoat.
Even the British often create and use acronyms diminutive words, such wellies — short for Wellington boots, brolly from umbrella. But especially this sin in Australia. They’ve got avo instead of avocado, and Barbie in the Barbecue sense. Against this background, veggies instead of vegetables — generally a piece of cake. By the way, “piece of cake” in English — is a piece of cake, easy-peasy lemon squeezy, duck soup and about the thousands of options, but these are some edible.
More about idioms reminded. Our “Indian summer” sounds poetic in English as Indian Summer.
The eternal mistake of many — uncountable nouns. If water or flour just about all clear, then what about the money, news and toast? No way. Remember that they are always grammatically singular. Money / news is, not are. Why? The type of money well you can count, especially strangers. The fact that the concept of countable implies the ability to count the object itself (the pieces). Money are considered to be pounds, euros, mnt, but not “money”. As the water — liters. Therefore uncountable.
And what is considered news and tips? News, advice, furniture, toast and others like them (apparently this nescessarily he inherited from bread) are considered to be pieces, that is a piece of. In Russian “piece of advice / news” sounds crazy, but what to do.
Pro advice. This Council, and the verb “to counsel” — to advise, with the voiced z ending. Similar work practice — to practise. Same story with f / v and vocalization in pronunciation: relief — to relieve, belief — to believe, grief — grieve to.
More about verbs. There is a type of the return verb with the particle “self”: to feel. Trying to translate “I feel” for tracing paper, received I feel myself. Not the best option. Feel in a transitional form (when it is after another noun / pronoun) means rather “feel”, not to “feel”. In the best case will be “I touch myself”.
Recipe — the recipe (reh-suh-pee). A medical prescription, is literally translated as “order”. I see there is a root from Latin (prae)scribere?
The only city, whose name is used with the definite article the Hague. The Hague.
Another tip might be to remember (good for beginners): a pair of this / that. This is BLandwk, that — dandLeko.
Once the student read the sentence how to give a shot to a dog, asked in surprise, why, they say, a dog solder. And it’s great because of polysemantic words in English a lot, shot one of them. Originally, it means “shot / blow”, but also refers to the photograph, a shot, and the infamous shot of alcohol.
But the most universal, in my opinion, the word get. Forget the exact verb? Use get. Seriously. This “get” and “get” and “become,” and “understand”, and “buy” and “to annoy” and “to punish”, and about a million options.
Snikersni. Snickersnee in translation from English — “big knife.” Oh and about the sneakers. Probably, know it all, but sneakers is the sneakers. As trainers (and not sweats). Trainers often use in Britain.
Another note about the elegance of the language. In English all the relatives, “acquired” in marriage, are called in-laws (by law become dearer to you). Mother-in-law, brother-in-law, son-in-law… And no sisters-in-law, and sisters-in-law and dozens of other words.
Sibling. This is both a brother or sister, in General, any relative, born of your parents. In Russian it has “brought” — are often greeted with the word “siblings”.
Curious Parallels. Our Guinea pig — Guinea pig (most importantly, don’t screw up with the pronunciation, there is a gi-nee). We say “Chinese grammar”, English — it’s all Greek to me; we have a “pigs are flying” and they when pigs fly. Our “break a leg” refers to a rather blood-thirsty wish Break a leg, and “like two drops of water” have a counterpart as two peas in a pod.
We’ve learned that the word beautiful is usually used for women, while men to say handsome. However, if you read Jane Austen in the original, there is a handsome woman through one. But in General, say about the ladies strong, wholesome, and not slender and petite.
In the UK for more than 100 words for different types of rain, but now one of them. Shower is not only a shower but a downpour.
As a General rule, adverbs are adjectives + the suffix-ly (nice — nicely). But there are adjectives ending in-ly: costly, friendly, lovely. What the adverb in this case? The output is not the most elegant, but it is what it is: adds in a… manner. In a cowardly manner — “cowardly”.
Here’s another popular misconception. We’ve learned that the word fine as an adjective means “good”, but it’s actually still “fine”. Therefore, choosing a shampoo, be careful for fine hair is for thin, and normal hair.
Often confuse lay and lie. And it’s easy to remember: lay — lay, lie — lay. Well, another lie.
Girls, if in Scotland you call a chicken (hen), take the time to be offended. It is quite a widespread appeal to women — such as our “darlings”, but without the disparaging connotations.
But did you know that? Share what have you been open and what other interesting facts about the English language you know.