Study: which industries are more likely to work immigrants in the United States

According to the survey Pew Research Center conducted from 29 April to 5 may, the majority of Americans agree that immigrants — both legal and not — mostly not work in those positions who want to take citizens of the United States. Talking about it in racial and ethnic groups, and in both political parties.

Исследование: в каких отраслях чаще всего работают иммигранты в США

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This is especially true if we are talking about undocumented immigrants. About three quarters of the adult population (77%) said that undocumented immigrants mostly take jobs that U.S. citizens don’t want to take, while 21% said that undocumented immigrants take jobs, which would like to work for US citizens.

Latinos (88%) more likely to say that undocumented immigrants mostly take jobs that U.S. citizens don’t want. Most often this claim immigrants as Hispanics, but not those Latinos that were born in the US (94% vs 82%). For comparison, a similar proportion of white (75%) and blacks (71%) adults say the same thing.

The results changed little compared with August 2019, when 77% of adult Americans said that undocumented immigrants take jobs that do not interest US citizens. The survey was conducted amid growing job losses across the country during the outbreak COVID-19. The unemployment rate in the U.S. rose to 14.7% in April, compared to 4.4% in March, the highest monthly figure since 1948. In may, he was 13.3%. A survey conducted in April-may showed a majority of Americans say that the Federal government is not responsible for the provision of economic assistance to undocumented immigrants who have lost their jobs due to the outbreak.

Some of the biggest differences in views associated with political parties. The vast majority of Democrats and independent Democrats (87%) say that immigrants take jobs that don’t want to deal with Americans, compared to 66% of Republicans and independent Republicans. However, inter-party differences are much wider than on other issues related to illegal immigrants.

Differences also exist depending on the level of education. Most of the adult population of the United States with a degree of graduate (88%) and BA (84%) say that undocumented immigrants mostly take jobs that U.S. citizens don’t want, compared to 78% among those who had not been long at College, and 69% of those who have only a high school diploma or below.

The majority of Americans, different groups also say that legal immigrants currently in the country mostly take jobs that U.S. citizens don’t want. Talking about this almost two thirds (64%) of Americans, including similar shares of whites and blacks (62%). About three-quarters of Hispanics (74%) say the same thing, with the share of Latin American immigrants (81%) than Hispanics born in the U.S. (68%). About 70% of the 42 million adult Latinos in the United States have close ties with immigrants — about 19 million are themselves immigrants, and nearly 10 million born in the United States have at least one parent who is an immigrant, according to estimates of the current population in 2019 and 2020.

Many immigrants living legally in the USA, take jobs that the Federal government considers necessary, including an estimated 2.7 million people who work in the health sector, or almost 15% of all health workers as of 2017, the latest year with available data.

Unauthorized immigrant workers in the United States

An estimated 7.6 million undocumented (or unauthorized) immigrants worked in the U.S. as of 2017, compared to 8.3 million in 2008, accounting for nearly 5% of all workers in the United States.

About 750,000 unauthorized immigrants worked in industries that produce and distribute food — the food production (290 000), food processing (210 000), retail trade of food products (170 000) and distribution of food products (70 000). During the outbreak COVID-19 these industries that are considered part of the food supply chain in the country, remained the major jobs. Unauthorized immigrants in these four industry groups in 2017 accounted for more than 9% of workers in the food sectors, almost twice their share among all U.S. workers. Together legal and unauthorized immigrants accounted for almost a quarter (23%) of nearly 8.2 million workers in the food industry in the country.

Many undocumented immigrants work in industries where there is a risk of job loss during the current outbreak of coronavirus, since they are busy with work, which is difficult to perform remotely. Overall, 84% of immigrant workers, undocumented, was this work in 2017, including in the services sector (2.3 million workers) and construction sector (1.3 million workers). For comparison, 62% of U.S. workers held these types of jobs.

Trump administration largely stopped legal immigration to the United States in recent months, though, she temporarily changed the visa rules for foreign guest workers, so that they can stay in the meat processing and other food and agricultural work. Although in recent years, unauthorized immigration has slowed, especially in the spring — pandemic coronavirus.

In 2017 in California, there were about 6.7 million immigrant workers, most in the country, accounting for nearly a quarter of all immigrant workers in the United States. In the state there were 5.2 million legal immigrant workers (24% of all legal immigrant workers in USA) and 1.5 million unauthorized immigrant workers (20% of all illegal migrant workers in the United States). Texas was the next largest population is the largest immigrant workforce with 2.1 million workers, legal immigrants, and 1.1 million unauthorized immigrant workers.

In California, about 570 000 immigrants worked in the fields of production and distribution of foods that make up the national food chain, the largest share in the country as of 2017. They account for about half of the employees in these sectors — 33% are legal immigrants and 17% are illegal immigrants. In Texas 170 000 immigrants working in the food industry, which is the next highest. They make up 28% of catering staff — 17% are legal immigrants and 11% are illegal immigrants.

The industries and activities of immigrants in the United States

Unauthorized immigrants accounted for almost 5% of the U.S. workforce in 2017, while legal immigrants accounted for nearly 13% of workers.

In industries where the employer is a business owner, immigrants accounted for more than a quarter of workers in the agricultural sector, which is the highest in the industry. Unauthorized immigrants (14%) and legal immigrants (15%) accounted for nearly equal shares of agricultural workers.

Compared to their share of the total labor force of the United States, a relatively high proportion of illegal immigrants also worked in industries such as construction (12%), leisure and hospitality (8%), personal and other services (7%) and manufacturing (6%). While the share of legal immigrants in construction in the US (13%) was similar to the proportion of illegal and legal immigrants accounted for a higher proportion of workers in the field personal and other services (15%), manufacturing (14%), and leisure and hospitality (12%).

As for the kind of work immigrants are most highly represented in agriculture, where as of 2017 in an irregular (22%) and legal immigrants (more than 21%) had more than four-tenths of all workers. The construction work of unauthorized immigrants accounted for 15% of workers, which is more than three times higher than their share among all U.S. workers. In contrast, legal immigrants made up 13% of workers in construction, similar to their share among workers in General.

Compared to their share of the total labor force of the United States, unauthorized immigrants had a greater presence in the manufacturing (8%), services (8%) and in transportation and moving materials (6%). Meanwhile, the share of legal immigrants in these areas was similar to their share among the labour forces of the United States as a whole.

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