System of government in the United States: how the Federal authorities and the governance

Federal laws in America apply across the country, in every state and city. Congress and the President play an important role in the development and enforcement of these laws, but they are not alone, writes to Share of America.

Система власти в США: как работают федеральные органы и управление на местах

Photo: Depositphotos

“We need the State Department. We need the Department of defense,” says Carl Jones, Director of the Department of international relations and federalism of the American legislative exchange Council, referring to the Federal agencies responsible for implementing foreign and defence policy of the country.

USA rely on a system called “federalism” in which state powers are distributed between local, state and national authorities. This is important, as citizens are confronted daily with various levels of government, but because of various reasons.

What does the Federal government?

Only the Federal government can regulate interstate and foreign Commerce, to declare war and enact national policies of taxation, expenditure and issues of national importance.

These actions often begin with the adoption of legislation in the U.S. Congress consisting of the house of representatives, which has 435 members and the Senate consisting of 100 members. Each of the 50 States has two senators, regardless of population size. The number of members of the house of representatives from each state depends on population of the state. The bills that approve of Congress, then sent to the President for signature and entry of laws into effect or veto.

The Executive branch is responsible for the enforcement of laws passed by Congress. It consists of the President and his advisers, as well as numerous ministries and agencies. Each of the ministries headed by the Minister, whom the President appoints on the advice and consent of the Senate. In the United States more than a dozen departments of the government, and each of them has a specific set of responsibilities. For example, the responsibilities of the Department of the Treasury Department include printing of money and its regulation.

The President is also the Supreme commander of the Armed forces of the United States. This means that the President gives guidance on how to use weapons where you want to transfer troops, and where to move ships. American generals and admirals follow orders of the President.

The powers of the authorities

The legislature

  • Federal level — Congress
  • The state level — state Legislature
  • Local level — Municipal Council

Executive power

  • Federal level — President
  • The state — Governor
  • Local level — the Mayor

The judiciary

  • Federal level — the U.S. Supreme court and Federal courts
  • The state Courts of the state of
  • Local level — Local courts

The Supreme court is the highest Federal court in the United States, providing American citizens equal justice under the law. Nine members of the Court – one chief justice and eight ordinary members, – interpret the laws in a fair and impartial manner when there is a disagreement about the legality of a law approved by Congress, the standard applied by the Federal Agency, or other issues.

The Constitution gives the President, who is elected by the entire country, the power to appoint judges. Candidates must be approved by the Senate. These judges provide a system of checks and balances among branches of government.

“The founding fathers divided power between the branches, because they knew that the best way to protect our citizens and preserve our Constitution,” the President said trump in 2017 at the ceremony of swearing in of associate justice of the Nile Gorica, which was nominated for the post by the President.

Landmark decisions of the Supreme court, define American life, and their consequences are still felt today. This includes the decision of 1954 in the case of “brown V. Board of education”, which was declared outlawed racial segregation in public schools.

Three branches of the Federal government gather in the U.S. Capitol building, when the President acts with the appeal “On the situation in the country” at a joint meeting of Congress. This speech allows the President to present the program for the coming year. The speech is traditionally held in January or February after convened a new session of Congress. In 2020, the performance took place on 5 February.

As a working “laboratories of democracy” States

Fifty American States as “laboratories of democracy” because they generate creative ideas in politics, which are being tested within the state, and sometimes passed at the Federal level.

National laws on minimum wage, safety standards in the workplace and policy in the field of social Affairs and health, first appeared in the United States.

USA rely on a system called “federalism” in which state powers are distributed between local, state and national authorities. This is important, as citizens are confronted daily with various levels of government, but because of various reasons.

The American structure of federalism and political culture encourage States to take the initiative, explains Carl Jones, Director of the Department of international relations and federalism of the American legislative exchange Council. “We are unique among the many developed countries that we give a lot of power to the States,” says Jones.

What are the functions of the state government?

States offer a variety of services to its residents, from the time man is born until his death. The state governments also issue certificates of birth and death.

States are responsible for managing hospitals and health system, the construction and repair of highway, financing of schools and colleges, the collection of taxes and maintenance of law enforcement bodies of regular subordination, whose members are often called “patrol state”.

Each state has a Department of motor vehicles, where citizens register their cars, get a driver’s license and to dispute the fines for traffic violations. Tax money and fees help to Fund all these services.

The duties of the Governor of the state, who elect the registered voters vary from state to state. But in General, the Governor brings into effect the laws and directs the Executive branch of state government, which, in turn, executes the program of the Governor. The Governor, as a rule, lives in a taxpayer-funded official residence, the Governor’s mansion in the state capital.

In addition to the Governor, each state has a legislature, or the legislature. Each state itself determines the size of its legislature. For example, in the legislature of new Hampshire, one of the smallest population States, there are 424 places while in California, the most populous state in the country – only 120 seats.

Citizens living in the States, elect the members of the chambers of representatives and senators that propose, draw up draft laws and vote on them and approve the annual budgets in the state capital. The state provides a portion of funding for local authorities, schools, libraries and other public institutions.

Local government in the United States: mayors, police and school boards

Almost six years sandy Evans called the school Board of the County of Fairfax in Virginia to postpone the beginning of classes in the senior classes of secondary schools at a later time. Evans decided to run for the vacant seat on the school Board from 12 members and won the election. She tried again to start classes for high school students after 7:20 am.

In 2014, Evans and new members of the school Council with the support of the new leader and the other members approved the time for starting classes after 8:00 a.m. for high schools in Fairfax County which is the 10th largest in the United States.

“This is not the only problem, admits Evans, but she was my priority in the Board of Directors.”

Welcome to the American local governments.

What does the local authority?

USA rely on a system called “federalism” in which state powers are distributed between local, state and national authorities. This is important, as citizens are confronted daily with various levels of government, but because of various reasons.

Local government is a cornerstone of American life, as the people most closely interact with it, says Carl Jones, Director of the Department of international relations and federalism of the American legislative exchange Council based in Washington. Local authorities offer citizens a range of basic services, including water and sewer, garbage removal, snow removal, housing and transportation services, approval standards for school programs and security of the population.

For example, when Americans call an emergency, it comes local COP, firefighter or paramedic. These employees are accountable to local government, and their work is most often paid from the local budget, which is replenished from local taxes.

“This is the essence of governance, and it is partially due to our federalism where any authority that is not fulfilling the national government, passed the state and municipal authorities,” explains Jones.

How many local governments there are in the US?

According to the census authorities of 2017, which is held every five years in the United States there are approximately 90 thousand units of local government.

Illinois leads in census with family of thousands of local government units. In Hawaii they are less just 21 units.

Basically, local government is divided into two levels: the larger areas are called counties (parishes in Louisiana and towns in Alaska), towns or cities. In some cases, districts are divided into villages.

Depending on the state Constitution, the municipalities can take different forms. You can call them villages, towns, cities, villages or major cities.

Local government is based on the system of mutual concessions. For example, Evans wanted to make the senior classes of secondary schools started classes at 8:30 in the morning.

“Everyone had to contribute to implement this idea. You must learn to listen to others and compromise,” says Evans.

Different

the US government

Educational program

educational program

power СШАFacebookVkontakte

bookmark