The winner of the Nobel peace prize for 2019 announced by the Prime Minister of Ethiopia Abiy Ahmed Ali “for his efforts to achieve peace” and the contribution to international cooperation.
Abiy Ahmed Ali, who heads the country from April 2018, awarded in particular for “vigorous initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea”, announced the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Berit Reiss-Andersen.
Since 1901, the Nobel peace prize was awarded 99 times. 19 once the Committee has not found worthy of the prize figures that would, as stated in Nobel’s will, “did more than any other fraternity between Nations, for destruction or to reduce armies and to maintain peace forums”. Alfred Nobel in his will he gave the right to choose the winner of the peace prize is not Swedish, namely the Norwegian Committee. The decision of the industrialist-philanthropist explained. According to one version, he did this because the Norwegian Parliament was the first Parliament in the world, voted in support of the peace movement.
According to the BBC, the choice of the Norwegian Committee criticized almost every year. So it was with Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and U.S. Secretary of state Henry Kissinger, and with the first and only President of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev and the US President Baraka Obama, who received the Nobel prize in the first year of his first term, though many believed that he had not yet had time to do his job.
In the second decade of the twenty-first century of the Nobel peace prize often awarded or activists and human rights defenders, who have no political power or large organizations that were originally created for peacekeeping and humanitarian activities. In 2012, the Nobel peace prize was awarded to the European Union as a whole – “for more than six decades of advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe”. In 2019, in the light of brekzita and difficult negotiations of the London to Brussels about the terms of the exit, easy to find arguments to criticize even a man as careful decisions.
According to the will of Alfred Nobel, the prize is awarded “to the one who will make a significant contribution to the unity of peoples, the elimination or reduction in the number of regular armies or in the development of peace initiatives”.
The prize is awarded in Oslo by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, consisting of five people who are chosen by Parliament from among distinguished public and political figures (not necessarily Norwegian), retired.
The announcement of the winner was held in the Norwegian Nobel Institute (founded in 1904), whose main task is to assist the Committee in selecting the award winner.
The peace prize can get both individuals and organizations. The right to propose candidates have current and former members of the Committee; members of national parliaments and governments; Board members of organizations – winners of the Nobel peace prize; rectors of prestigious universities and respected professors, reading courses, law, history, philosophy, theology, and social Sciences; Directors of research institutes on peace and international relations; the holders of the Nobel peace prize. The nomination process begins in September and ends on 1 February next year, said TASS.
Among the winners are many well-known politicians and public figures: the President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt (1906), Norwegian Arctic Explorer and social activist Fridtjof Nansen (1922), a fighter for the rights of African Americans Martin Luther king (1964), German Chancellor Willy Brandt (1971), U.S. Secretary of state Henry Kissinger (1973), mother Theresa (1979), the leader of the Polish trade Union Solidarity Lech Walesa (1983), U.S. President Barack Obama (2009). Twice the award was marked by our fellow citizens: academician Andrei Sakharov in 1975 “for dealing with abuse of power and all forms of suppression of human dignity” and the President of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev in 1990 “in recognition of his role in the peace process.”
The Nobel peace prize in different years was awarded the religious leaders. Among them are the Lutheran Archbishop Lars Nathan Soderblom from Sweden (1930), head of the world Association of Christian students, John Mott (1946), German Protestant theologian albert Schweitzer (1952), a monk of the Dominican George Feast from Belgium (1958), Anglican Archbishop Desmond tutu of South Africa (1984), the Dalai Lama XIV, Tenzin Gyatso (1989), Catholic Bishop Carlos Bela from Indonesia (1996).
Three times the award was given to persons in detention: in 1935, German anti – fascist Karl von Seckau (arrested by the Nazis in 1933), in 1991 – the leader of Myanmar Aung San Suu Kyi (in 1989-1995 was under house arrest), in 2010 Chinese human rights activist Liu Xiaobo (in 2009 was sentenced to 11 years in prison for “inciting Subversion of state power” in China).
The only time the peace prize was awarded posthumously in 1961 the award was marked by the UN Secretary-General Dag hammarskjöld (Sweden), who died in September 1961 in a plane crash. In the justification it was stated that under his leadership, “the UN has become an effective and constructive international organization, capable to breathe life into the principles and purposes enshrined in the UN Charter”.
In 1974 the Nobel Foundation forbid the posthumous award.
The only laureate who refused the peace prize, is a Vietnamese politician (representative of North Vietnam) Le Duc tho. He was awarded in 1973, together with Henry Kissinger for their efforts to conclude an agreement on the restoration of peace in Vietnam, however, did not accept it, as the country continued military action.
Among the awarded organizations is the international Committee of the red cross (1917, 1944, 1963), the Office of the high Commissioner for refugees (1954, 1981), the UN Children’s Fund (1965), the organization “Amnesty international” (1977), the movement “Physicians for prevention of nuclear war” (1985), International forces, UN peacekeeping (1988), “Doctors without borders” (1999), the UN and its Secretary-General, Kofi Annan (2001), the International atomic energy Agency (IAEA) and its Director General Mohamed ElBaradei (2005), the European Union (2012), the Organization for the prohibition of chemical weapons (2013).
In 2018 awarded to Congolese doctor Denis Mukwege and the Iraqi human rights activist Nadia Murad “for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict”.