In Stockholm announced the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine in 2019. It became an American oncologist, William Calin from Harvard medical school, Briton sir Peter Ratcliffe (Institute of Francis Crick) and the American Gregg Semenza (Johns Hopkins University) for molecular studies of mechanisms of adaptation of cells to oxygen levels.
Scientists have identified the mechanism of perception by the cells of oxygen and adapt to changes in its availability, explained in the press release of the Nobel Committee. The discovery will help to define new strategies in the treatment of diseases such as cancer, anemia and many others.
“The fundamental importance of oxygen known for many centuries, but how cells adapt to changing oxygen levels, we knew nothing”, says the statement of the Committee. The oxygen level in different parts of the body are different, especially under heavy loads and during exercise.
The announcement of the prize winners in medicine and physiology is the traditional start of Nobel week. From 8 to 10 October in Stockholm will announce the names of winners for achievements in physics, chemistry and literature, October 11, will be known winner of the Nobel peace prize, October 14 – the winner of the prize for Economics in memory of Alfred Nobel, established the State Bank of Sweden in 1968. The awarding ceremony is traditionally held on December 10, the day of Alfred Nobel’s death.
In 2018, the Nobel prize in medicine was awarded the American scientist James Allison and Honjo Japanese, Tasuku for their discovery of a method of treating cancer by inhibition of negative immune system. Scientists have found a protein that acts as a brake on the immune system, and have learned to block it to provoke additional immune cells to fight cancer. Drugs developed on the basis of their proposed techniques, already successfully applied in the treatment of cancer patients, notes the BBC Russian service. Even more drug candidates are in clinical trials and will be available in the coming years.
About a month before the announcement of the Nobel prize in Garrage announced the winners of the IG Nobel prize, awarded for original ideas, as well as the ridiculous and seemingly useless scientific achievements. Prize in medicine was awarded to Italian Silvano Gallus, who established that eating pizza can help your body deal with some diseases – myocardial infarction, breast cancer, ovarian and prostate cancer, but it is important that the pizza was cooked and eaten in Italy.