We imagine the work of the pilot as solid romance: sky, airplane, girl. It is, furthermore, it pays so well. Yes, another small detail: it is a huge work and responsibility for hundreds of lives, constant stress, fighting for flight and pension in 32 years. This writes AdMe.ru.
From the decision on the choice of profession prior to admittance into the pilot’s seat a long way. First, the initial flight training schools or flying schools. A young graduate of the flight school, aviators traditionally call “brave pepper”. Then training at the aviation training centers on those planes that are used in airlines.
After passing the tests the trainee sits in the copilot’s seat, and the crew of not less than 50 flights is assigned an experienced co — pilot “insurance”. At the end of the program the trainee is undergoing flight test in flight conditions under the guidance of the examiner and only then allowed to work independently on the position of co-pilot.
Flight simulator that simulates real flight, looks like a severed nose of the aircraft, they are equipped with electro-hydraulic motion system, that is, they shakes “grown-up”, they reproduce the noise, overload, inertia and turbulence, and the window floats quite a realistic landscape.
The instructor, standing at the monitor, will not sit down and land, because before you can sit behind a real steering wheel, the pilot got on their skin to test abnormal situations: fault on Board, emergency landing, landing in difficult weather conditions and even the pain of having a collision. Such exercises help to bring the action to automatism and are taught to make decisions with lightning speed.
Average salary of a Russian pilot about ₽330 million ($5233). In the U.S., the commander of flying on a Boeing or Airbus, earns up to $30 thousand
In Russia, the pilot needs to fly 90 hours a month and 900 hours per year — duration flight hours maximum for the Russian civil aviation. The norm in the US, Europe and China — 100 hours per month, 900 hours per year in the EU and 1 000 hours in the United States and China.
Schedule as follows: 4/3, 4/4, 3/3, 4/3. The first number before the fraction is the number of days in flight, and the second rest days. Pilots may request other types of graphics, such as 6/6. Between flights mandatory minimum rest of 12 hours, between night flying is 24 hours.
No fixed crews. Change the second pilots and flight attendants. If the crew is “not clean”, no one relaxes. The basic principle of operation of the crew called crosscheck, when one checks the other. That’s why pilots are always on Board 2.
A course on “the Rhetoric of speech” for young officers. They are taught to speak clearly, accurately and in the same tempo — calm, regardless of the circumstances.
Many pilots can’t wear a beard, so that during an emergency, the oxygen mask tightly to the face. But this rule depends on the policies of specific airlines.
The passport of the pilot is not clogged with visa, such as a trucker: there is a General Declaration, which spelled out the entire crew, and it allows some time to be in the country without a visa. Although each country can be its own norms.
The menu of pilots is similar to that of the passengers in business class. The first and second pilots always eat different food: if one poisoned, the other will be able to replace it. And the meals they call “chicken”.
As punishment pilots assign “straighten the hooks” — to make a short night flight. There hour and a half to 3 hours Parking, then an hour and a half back. Flew less than 3 hours, tired, and pay for the plaque. Flight preparation is not taken into account, the working time — from the moment the hatch is closed.
Do pilots their slang. For example, if you hear a pilot complaining about “mraku with milk”, this means that today, fog and precipitation. “Pepelaz” call of the self-propelled ladder, “the Lord of the rings” — the Manager of the circle, “dragon” machine for de-icing. Passengers called “mullet”, “patients” or “organisms”. “Economists” — passengers in the economy class, “business” business, “truffles” or “Pervatsch” — the first. “Umka” — a child without an escort.
The aircraft also are called in a special way: “watermelon” — Airbus transport aircraft — “the barn”, the 747 “hump”. Slang names are and from airports: Moscow Vnukovo and Sheremetyevo — Granddaughter and Ball, Koltsovo in Ekaterinburg — wheeling.
Each pilot their pre-flight tradition, but as one of greet machine. It is considered bad luck to wear a new shirt and be photographed before the flight. Often before a difficult flight the pilots did not shave not to frighten off good luck. You cannot sew on buttons before the flight. Should not be used in respect of the flight the word “last”, only “extreme”.
In aviation jargon, the second pilot called “skipper” or “pravak”, because sitting in the right pilot’s seat. A further nickname depends on how the pilot of the show themselves. It will work poorly — pass for “the fighter”, well — “the guard”. Despite the fact that traditionally the flights as a “pravoka” are seen as preparation for the role of aircraft commander, each second pilot will be the captain.
The candidate for the post of commander of the aircraft is reviewed and approved by the flight-methodical Council of the airline, and not enough skills, should be free vacancy. To increase the required plaque on this type of plane is not less than 1 500 hours and nerves of steel — not everyone is ready to fly on their own, can make decisions quickly and knows how to organize the crew. As a rule, co-pilots, ready to take the left seat, many, competition is high and choose the best.
Responsibilities between the pilots are divided equally, but the final word is always with the captain. Before the flight, the pilots discuss what functions will take over, who’s flying and who does the monitoring. For instance, first takes off, controls the autopilot in level flight and perform a landing. The second monitors the work of piloting and leads the radio dispatcher.
All pilots undergo a training in self-defense, and quarterly recall alarm features that may occur during the flight, and then show how able to cope with the emergency situation. Once a year a complete medical examination. Periodically testing for psychological compatibility of the crew.
The pilots admit that they are under pressure the policy of the airlines, their goal is to spend as little as possible of expensive fuel. Many say that it affects their decisions and I worried, because if the plane for any reason, deviate from the course or will need to fly to the alternate airport, the fuel may just be over and it will be a nightmare of the crew.
Preparation for the flight begins at least 2 hours. Pilots come to the premises via a private entrance and undergo a full inspection. Before each flight, the medical examination, during which pilots ask about the health measure heart rate and blood pressure, look at the throat. If the crew member feels unwell, on a flight to the pilot of the backup crew, which is always on duty at the airport.
After medical examination pilots go to the briefing room to get the “slider” (the task for the flight) and discuss the flight to check the weather on the route, to choose the optimum route and alternate airport. Then the commander calls the senior flight attendant and holds him for instruction.
The aircraft pilots go on a special minibus. For the airline each ride costs $15. On the airfield they move in the green vests with reflectors.
Before the flight, the commander performs a full test of the onboard systems. The second pilot is conducting an external inspection of the aircraft, or, in avialine, “doing physical exercises”. Checks that the file Remove before flight on the a-pillar — when available, the aircraft can not “pull your legs” — to remove the chassis, and install them to the holes are crammed insects and getting wet. He also looks at the state of “bast” — pad “snout” nose, “coccyx” — tail, “the belly” — the middle part of the fuselage, examines all the basic components.
In the plane there is no ignition key like in a car, he switched by button. The pilots call the dashboard the “accordion”, and the buttons on it very much, among them are an unusual kind of switch or external lighting control panel weather radar. The buttons have arrows and text, which facilitates the decoding so that, even without many years of experience, the pilot understands the purpose of each. Although even if he forgets what was happening, the plane has a cheat sheet.
Contrary to popular belief, pilots don’t snore in my cabin, relying on the autopilot. The autopilot is engaged most of the flight, but pilots were talking to controllers, control devices, examine documents, conduct interviews, write the required parameters and, if necessary, take over the controls. With the exception of long flights with augmented crew, the members of which succeed each other.
If the pilot asks passengers to buckle up — staffing situation, and if crew members — the aircraft is in severe turbulence. The pilots wonder why passengers are afraid of turbulence, because it can cause a fall, but simply brings considerable inconvenience. At the same time, to calm the passengers, often the word turbulence replace, declaring: “We fly through a pocket of air”
If the aircraft that is not so, passengers will not be to devote in a detail, and in many cases do not inform. Emergency landings happen all the time, just not so often in the news. Most often it happens because of fuel shortages and technical problems.
Most people fear destabilizie. The pilots reaction to fear worked: they begin to act more precisely, choose a priority for the task and solve it. They are taught to fly effectively under stress. For example, to bring itself to life in a stressful situation, they should smile, touch the hair or cap, to suppress thoughts about the negative development of events and perform for stress relief breathing exercises.
Max extreme situations practiced during the training on the simulator. However, the decision on how to proceed in each case, accepts the commander of the crew. For example, Damir Yusupov, the pilot of the plane “Ural airlines” made an emergency landing in a cornfield near Moscow, admits that he was critically pressed for time to respond to intermittent operation of motors. The solution was changed several times, in the end he decided not to release the chassis, Airbus sat on the “belly”, and it saved the lives of 224 passengers and 7 crew members.
Only in the crew cabin there is a sliding window, but to open them is allowed only on a hot day at the airport. And even, drivers have a special orange curtains, which are lowered to avoid blinding sun.
Pilots are constantly fighting with the flight attendants because of the temperature in the cabin. Temperature controlled by thermostat located in the cockpit. The flight attendants are hot, because they are constantly in motion — running up and down the salon and ask to lower the temperature, and passengers and pilots with cold.
Aviators are converting your mobile into airplane mode, because at the height they are constantly searching for network, and drain quickly. And passengers are asked to remove the phones, not because the technique will interfere with the aircraft’s instruments and, therefore, that in the event of force majeure will all hit the phones, we have to act be quick, and the use of mobile would be a distraction.
Before the flight, the pilot and copilot agree on which of them will be welcomed on Board. If the pilot’s good mood, he’ll joke and talk about the weather, the territory on which the plane flies. Sometimes both pilots communicating with passengers.
During the flight, pilots a lot forbidden, for example to leave more than 5 minutes. And in the toilet they go in a special way: if one out of the cab, someone from the flight attendants sits in his place. It’s a precaution in case of an emergency situation.
The pilots and flight attendants is kid code for danger. Secret language invented to not cause a panic on Board. Mayday means emergency. Pan-Pan — phrase that is pronounced three times for minor problems on Board at the beginning of the call Manager. Easy Victor — urgent evacuation, according to the regulations after the submission of the command signal must lead the passengers in 90 seconds.
A fairly common problem is the cracking of glass in the cockpit. This can happen due to collision with birds, from the sudden drop in temperature, pressure, damaged seals or fasteners. Depressurization of the cabin and cockpit does not occur, because the glass to glass cockpits of Airliners is very durable, three-layer. The thickness of each layer varies from 1 to 25 mm, and the total thickness is 100 mm. So if one of the layers of the crack, it is usually not dangerous. You can safely continue the flight. In this case, the crew acts according to the situation: it is to the destination, or returns to the departure airport, or makes an emergency landing in the near.
Pilots like to keep accounts on Instagram, and we’re grateful for that, because they are under a special angle to see the planet. Most pilots use the hashtag #pilotlife and #pilotsview. But sometimes there are serious problems and penalties, because there are strict rules governing the actions of the crew of the airlines during the flight, and photos for social networks is not included in their number. But pilots are reminded that there are stages when you can escape from the office, and during critical phases of flight they are on guard.
Movies about aviation pilots perceive with humor. All these moments when ordinary people understand how to land the plane, or right in the flight patch holes in reality impossible. But recognize that if a consultant of the film was the pilot, then perhaps this movie would be boring.
The crew has benefits for flight — “travel”. Every company has its own bonuses for employees, for example, 10% of the cost of the ticket you can fly to any place the airline flies.
Novels with colleagues is not prohibited. There are many married couples who met on Board. Thus it is impossible to conduct in the cockpit of family members and even a colleague, if it is not written in the flight mission.
Applause accepted only Russian passengers, but the pilots can’t hear in his cabin, as we sit in the headphones and talk on the intercom. A pilot with 30 years of experience reported that passengers “early days”, the applause when you touch the ground, there is no logic, because there are still taxiing. They have the concept of gate to gate when the flight is over, taxiing was a success and it would be nice to hear the applause, but at this point all already left the salon.
Retired pilot may leave when his flight experience includes over 6,000 hours for men and 4 800 hours for women. There were cases when people retired at age 32. Due to the hazardous and stressful working conditions provides for additional payment to pension.
The airmen themselves believe that their profession is dying and we are confident that in a few decades they will replace the equipment. This is confirmed by the predictions: by 2036, the industry will face a record shortage of pilots around the world will need more than 637 thousand specialists and the only salvation is the automation.