# Ukrainian scientists have solved the mystery of the Loch ness monster

In the oceans, seas, lakes, there are waves to see with your own eyes is almost impossible, because they rolled in the water column. Therefore, they are called internal. The results of research scientists of the Institute of problems of mathematical machines and systems National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine show that the existence of these waves can be the explanation of many myths and legends, including the famous Loch ness monster.

came to the conclusion that the mysterious creature in the Scottish lake exists, but it is not an ancient reptile.

## “Dead water, once in which the ships stopped, as if keeping them unknown force exists”

— I must say that our group does not attempt to solve the mystery of the Loch ness monster, but it so happened that we figured out why there could be a legend of this fantastic creature, — says senior researcher of the Institute of mathematical machines and systems NASU, doctor of physical and mathematical Sciences Catherine Terletskaya. — The results of our mathematical modeling shows that at the Northern end of Loch ness on the surface of the water for no apparent reason can cause disturbances, like waves, which create a floating boat or other vessel. If people from time to time I notice that on the surface of the lake for no reason water starts to go in different directions, as if there’s something floats, then, of course, there is a rumor about a monster.

Photos from the shooting of a film about Nessie

Well, according to your calculations, is the cause of the strange disturbances on the surface of this lake?

The interaction of internal waves produced in the water column, with specific bottom topography of the Northern tip of Loch ness.

And one more thing. In this lake there are currents caused by internal waves. There is a version of the British scientists that due to internal waves at the boundary of warm and cold layers of water objects (such as half logs) can swim against the current. Imagine: a fisherman is fishing from a boat and sees that at a depth of several meters against the current moves something of impressive size. Back on shore, he will tell you he saw a monster.

— What other mysterious phenomena can be explained by internal waves?

— These underwater waves have an associated effect that the sailors of old called “dead water”. Unlike the Loch ness monster, dead water there. What are you talking about? Imagine rowing a ship boldly sails on the sea, driven by the wind. Suddenly the ship stops, rooted to the spot, and how many rowers may try, it stays in place. It is clear that such a mysterious event is able to inspire mystical fear even in the most daring and desperate people. Some time later, dead water released ships, and they again were able to move. The sailors attributed this kind of occasion the antics of the sea monsters or the dark forces. In fact, the reason for that is the internal wave.

The court often fall into the dead water in the Red sea. The fact that there is the top layer of water warms up especially strongly. If the oars of the rowers and the propellers of ships fall on the border of very heated and relatively cool layers, then they create an internal wave that holds them in place. Similar phenomena often occur near the Norwegian fjords. The reason is that there pyatidesyatimetrovy the upper water layer is almost fresh and lower salty. Should the screw be on the border of these layers, and it will create the internal wave and slow down himself.

Powerful internal waves arise in the sea Straits. Because they encounter water of different temperature, salinity… In this regard, it is possible to explain the Greek legend of Scylla and Charybdis that Homer included in his famous poem, “the Odyssey”. Let me remind you that the ancient Greeks “settled” the monsters in the narrow Messina Strait between Italy and Calabria. According to legend, Scylla had six heads and 12 legs. In its mouth were three rows of teeth. She lived in a cave, located high in the rock. When through the Strait passed the ships, she snatched from the decks of six sailors. And Charybdis — mythical sea monster that lived under the opposite rock, which was at a distance of an arrow’s flight from the house of Scylla. Charybdis thrice a day sucked in the water, thereby creating powerful whirlpools, which killed the court. There is reason to believe that in ancient times the Strait of Messina was much tighter than it is now. So there for large internal waves could occur powerful water funnel that became the basis for the emergence of legends about monsters living there.

Powerful internal waves arising in the sea Straits, could be cause of the legend of Scylla and Charybdis

— Internal waves can cause people harm?

Yes. They are dangerous to marine platforms for the extraction of gas and oil. Besides are a threat to submarines. Many experts believe that the cause of the mysterious catastrophe of the nuclear submarine U. S. S. “Thresher” in 1963 (it killed 129 people) became a huge domestic wave. In the area where the vanished submarine (waters of the U.S. near Cape cod), an extremely powerful internal waves. I must say that the height of the highest such wave recorded by scientists, reached 240 meters! For comparison: the height of the most powerful waves of a tsunami hitting the coast, many times less: 30-40 meters. You need to understand that internal waves are of great importance for the World ocean — they mix the layers of water in it.

Interestingly, the portrait of the scientist who discovered these waves, placed on the hundred dollar bill is Benjamin Franklin. The discovery of internal waves he made when he was … postmaster. On the mail ship on which he went from the island of Madeira in America, was used for lighting oil lamps. They poured water and oil. On the border of these two liquids Benjamin Franklin saw the movement and realized that this is a special internal waves. He is the only person, who, as President of the United States, had the honor to be depicted on American money.

## “By the end of this century the water level of the Black and Azov seas will rise by 30-40 centimeters”

— How is it that your Institute has been studying internal waves?

To answer this question, we need to say that after the explosion in 1986 of the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl in our Institute specially to solve the problems associated with the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident, there has been a series of mathematical models. When in 2011 the accident occurred at the Japanese Fukushima nuclear power plant, our experience was interested in South Korea, because it is close to Japan. And we began to work together.

Catherine Terletskaya: “Portrait of the scientist who discovered these waves, placed on the hundred dollar bill”

In addition, South Korea is very important to the study of internal waves. A lot of them in the Yellow sea, washing the shores of this country. Our mathematical model can be used for different purposes. That is why the Koreans asked us to do and internal waves. A few years later the same invitation we received from the Chinese oceanographers. The fact that the South China sea is a real “reserve” of internal waves. There they generated an extraordinary amount. They are in those places is very powerful because of strong tides.

For our work together need a supercomputer with enormous computational capacities. In Ukraine these machines is not enough, so remotely are those that are located in research centers in China and South Korea.

See also: after 30 Years of winter in the South of Ukraine will not be at all, is a famous scientist

Internal waves generated in water bodies of Ukraine, could harm people?

— No, because they are not very large. By the way, one of the studies that we conduct relates to the rise of the water level in the oceans due to global warming. It is clear that we are most interested in what will happen to the Black and Azov seas. Our calculations show that by the end of this century the water level in them will rise by 30-40 centimeters.

Is a lot or a little?

Let’s say, significant flooding of the shore it will not. In other parts of the world the water will leave large areas of densely populated people areas. The consequence of this will be mass migration. And this will inevitably affect our country.

According to current projections, the Global sea level by the end of century rise of 70-80 centimeters. But this is the average temperature in the hospital — in different places of the Earth rise will be different. In the Baltic sea generally is expected to reduce the level as it rises under the earth’s crust.

Today, there are very many predictions of changes in sea level, and many of them are significantly different from each other. One of the reasons is that the mathematical model did not accurately take into account the processes occurring in the ocean, including the mixing produced by internal waves. Science has few of them have studied. Therefore, the study of internal waves is one of the priority tasks of modern science.

As previously reported “FACTS”, Ukraine became the world record holder in the growth rate of the average temperature.