For combating coronavirus all over the world has developed about 100 vaccines. The UK is going to finish testing until the autumn, Germany is looking for volunteers in the United States to the financing of projects connected billionaire bill gates. However, in the who falsify the test skeptical: one should not expect that the vaccine will appear within the next year. Which countries are developing vaccines, at what stage are and what the problem is with the use of the immunization in practice: analysis LIGA.net.
U.S. vaccines are tested, needs at least a year
In mid-March in the United States reported the first clinical trials of vaccines against the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in humans. Tests are held at the Washington research Institute of health, Kaiser Permanente in Seattle. To undertake scored 45 young healthy volunteers.
C 10 April at the start of the testing of the vaccine and said in Inovio Pharmaceuticals. 40 volunteers administered two doses of vaccine INO-4800.
Inovio researchers put part of the code of the virus in a piece of synthetic DNA, reports the New York Post. Entered as a vaccine, cells will operate as a mini-factory for production of copies of the harmless protein. In turn the immune system against them will produce protective antibodies that will work if a real virus ever enters the body.
Even if the first safety tests are successful, “it will take a year and a half,” before any vaccine is ready for widespread use. The FDA of the USA has declared that the release of the vaccine will probably happen at least a year.
Billionaire bill gates, who is sponsoring seven “most promising” projects for the development of vaccines, also calls not to overstate expectations. According to him, the production of vaccine is unlikely to begin in September, according to Bloomberg. In the best case within a year will be able to start large-scale production of a vaccine against coronavirus disease COVID-19.
UK: human trials began
In Oxford in the penultimate week of April, the first stage of clinical trials of potential vaccines on humans. The vaccine was developed by research Institute of vaccines Edward Jenner in just 3.5 months.
Vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 created based on a weakened version of the adenovirus (the common cold) from chimpanzees. In it, the scientists added part of the genetic code of the coronavirus.
The study will involve about 1,100 people. Half of them will receive the vaccine from COVID-19, and the other half (control group) — a vaccine against meningitis MenACWY. None of the research participants will not know which vaccine he received. Otherwise, the researchers say, it can affect their behavior in relation to health in society after vaccination and may distort the results of the study.
As quickly come to the result, depends on the level of transmission in the community: from two to six months.
Scientists say they are confident of success about 80%. They so believe in it that has already developed a vaccine in mass production. It’s a risk if the vaccine doesn’t work. But if so, by September we will be ready for about a million doses, and then production will accelerate.
On the Oxford project, the UK government allocates £ 20 million (almost $ 25 million).
Another 22.5 million pounds ($28 million), the Ministry of health of the country will be directed to test another prototype from Imperial College London. Clinical trials on humans are planned for June.
Germany: allowed trials on humans
In Germany issued the first permit for clinical trials of potential vaccines. This was announced by the Institute in the name of Paul Erlich.
Was the preparation of the company BioNTech. This RNA vaccine. 200 first vaccinated healthy volunteers aged 18 to 55 years. The second part will instill other people of this age, but with an increased risk of infection or heavy flow COVID-19.
While at the Institute, Paul Ehrlich warned that it is unlikely that the vaccine will be available to the public in 2020.
China: three vaccines, tests
China approved three candidate vaccines against COVID-19 for testing. Beijing first in the world to reach their second phase.
Other previously approved the vaccine based on adenovirus vector. It will be tested on volunteers until 31 December 2020. Moving rapidly and the process testing of inactivated vaccine. Such developments are, in particular, researchers in Wuhan and Beijing company Sinovac Research & Development Co.
At the end of last week began the second phase of human trials for a vaccine developed in the first epicenter of the epidemic. It was created in the Wuhan Institute of biological products, the state pharmaceutical Corporation of China Sinopharm. In the first phase received vaccine of 96 persons in three age groups. It showed good safety, although all volunteers are supervised.
But it may take years to complete the trials and finally come to the conclusion on the safety and efficacy of the vaccine.
The Chinese authorities do not exclude that for emergency use (not for everyone, but for special groups of people — for example, doctors) one of the vaccines will be ready in September — said the head of the Chinese Center for disease control Gao Fu.
He added that Chinese scientists can also make vaccine for healthy population at the beginning of next year.
Switzerland: I want to have time by October
In the laboratory, Martin Bachmann from the Institute of immunology of the University of Bern have developed a RBD-a vaccine. As a stimulus for the immune system of the body uses the receptor-binding domain (RBD) – the part of the protein spikes on the surface of the virus that attaches to receptors on the cell membrane of the victim and allows the particles to penetrate into it.
The prototype vaccine lab created back in February, shortly after it was decoded the genome of SARS-CoV-2. They hope to successfully conduct clinical tests to mid autumn and then to start the vaccination of people from risk groups.
In by Swissmedic to conduct the (Supervisory authority) announced: October, of course, “looks very optimistic, but these terms are most likely”.
Israel: human trials will begin in the summer
In Israel in early April began testing a sample of the vaccine, developed by the Israeli Institute of biological research. The tests are carried out on rodents in biochemical laboratories for defense purposes.
The first phase of clinical vaccine trials on humans will begin in the summer. Tests will continue for another six to nine months.
Australia, the Netherlands: testing the BCG vaccine
In the Netherlands, began the first studies related to the testing of BCG vaccine against coronavirus. Preliminary studies show that BCG can actively fight COVID-19. Research by a team of the Medical University of Utrecht.
The vaccine already tested on thousands of health staff in eight hospitals in the Netherlands.
In the same way it went to Australian scientists. Tests are on mass third step: inoculation received four thousand doctors. Monitor the results of vaccination, scientists will be in the course of the year, so it’s still the prospect of several months.
In the absence of evidence, the who does not recommend BCG vaccination for the prevention COVID-19.
Five facts associated with the vaccine COVID-19
The creation of a safe and effective vaccine is the most reliable method of preventing any infectious disease. But there are nuances, said LIGA.net doctor of medical Sciences, Professor, Institute of physiology Viktor Dosenko.
Fact # 1
The country boosts of vaccines, but to go on mass vaccination in “reduced” terms can not.
“It will take a year or two, and even more. No go on reducing to throw the market an untested product with insufficient evidence. So we agreed in the scientific and medical world, it is the canons. Yes, people die. But the vaccine must be checked”, — he said.
Fact # 2
Although it is possible that in the experimental (e.g. for doctors) vaccination will start in the fall. But it definitely is not about the purchase States in large volumes. Rather, it will look like a continuation of the research on individual categories of people.
Fact # 3
How to lead the new coronavirus during the vaccines can not be predicted. For example, for the precursor of SARS-CoV-1 (an epidemic of 2002-2003) the vaccine was never finished: it’s just missing the request.
“The first SARS caused an epidemic that killed some number of people — and disappeared, not him,” recalled the scientist. He does not exclude that also can disappear without a trace and the second SARS.
Fact # 4
Alternatively, the virus may mutate, then vaccinated people will need each season.
“To the flu to SARS to work and work,” but if that happens, and the vaccine is already developed, then modify it under a new mutation — no problem.
Fact # 5
With high probability this wave of the epidemic will be no vaccine. Therefore, in parallel with vaccines it is necessary to seek other methods of treatment. Now in the world are 997 clinical studies on COVID-19. In Ukraine — only one.