What is sugar and how it affects the body

Glucose, fructose, sucrose or lactose: there are different types of sugar have different sweetness. Also a variety of sugar have different effect on blood sugar levels.

Каким бывает сахар и как он влияет на организм

Their common feature is the calories and carbohydrates of sugar give about 400 kcal per 100 grams. As for the blood sugar, for example glucose increases faster than fructose.

Glucose. Is a monosaccharide that is found in fruits, vegetables and honey. Glucose is the most important sugar because it plays a unique role in metabolism: it is formed in the form of sugar in the blood, and is also part of many other sugars, such as lactose or sucrose.

Glucose for our body with a quick source of energy. Its side effects: glucose causes the blood sugar to rise faster than ordinary table sugar and promote tooth decay. In food industry glucose produced from corn or potato starch and add not only in sweets but also in other products (ketchup, sausage).

Fructose. Also is a simple sugar and, despite its name, is found not only in fruits. Table sugar is 50 percent fructose in bound form.

In the liver fructose is converted into glucose. At the same time, unlike glucose fructose does not lead to a sharp increase of sugar level in the blood. However, it is not necessary to constantly resort to fructose as a sweetener in large quantities it contributes to the obesity of internal organs, and cardiovascular diseases.

In addition, often there is malabsorption of fructose or a fructose intolerance. About 20 percent of adults and almost a third of children suffer from fructose intolerance. Like glucose, fructose also has cariogenic effect, which causes tooth decay.

Galactose. Galactose is part of lactose, present in milk and milk products such as yogurt, but also soy sauce, white and red wine. This simple sugar is much less sweet than fructose and glucose.

Tagatose. Is also a monosaccharide. On an industrial scale is made from galactose naturally occurs in some fruits (apples , oranges, pineapples, raisins, dates), cocoa and hot milk products. This type of sugar is almost as sweet as regular sugar, but does not lead to the development of caries. In the small intestine of tagatose absorbed only 20 percent, so compared to other sugars is lower in calories.

Lactose. It is a disaccharide: consists of one molecule of glucose and galactose. Lactose is called milk sugar in its natural form it is found in milk and dairy products. Lactose is slowly increasing the level of sugar in the blood, but her inherent cariogenic effect.

Lactose has beneficial effects on digestion and intestinal bacteria, but no intolerance. Such intolerance is caused by insufficient lactase enzyme: in this case, using milk, the people face pains and cramps in the abdomen, diarrhea, nausea.

Isomaltulose. Another disaccharide consists of glucose and fructose, like table sugar. Isomaltulose was first approved as a new food product in the EU in 2005, it is a natural component of honey and sugar cane.
Isomaltulose metabolized slowly, and the rise in blood sugar levels because it is slow. It is believed that dental decay does not cause isomaltulose.

Maltose. This type of sugar is formed by the decomposition of starch, for example, the digestion in the human body starchy foods, as well as the germination of potatoes or grain (for making beer). Like fructose and glucose, maltose may also be available in a pure form. It is used in the production of bakery products, beverages and other products infused caramel taste.

Sucrose. Regular white table sugar is the most popular sweeteners and the most common type of sugar in food. Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of equal parts of glucose and fructose. It is naturally found in sugarcane and turnips is extracted from them. Chemical difference cane and beet sugar is not.

Nowadays, the sugar is almost ubiquitous, it is hidden in many foods, and the consumption of sugar modern humans, primarily by residents of cities, is estimated by doctors as excessive and associated with harmful consequences in the form of obesity, metabolic disorders and diabetes, destruction of teeth and bones.