She never sleeps, broadcast thousands of signals, constantly absorb, emit, itself lubricates, moisturizes, repairs, cools or warms. Knows how to blush, sweat can become thin, thick, oily, dry, not tired to die again and be reborn. We carry it from birth, grow up together, grow old and leave this world. Skin is our protection and our business card.
Modern scientists are constantly working to create technology that would allow it to grow an artificial epithelium as close as possible to the human. Japanese both biomedical doctors have managed to recreate a sample of faux leather with functioning glands and even growing hairs. Russian scientists are trying to grow the dermis for transplantation in vitro, using native human cells. However, with all the revolutionary discoveries and technological possibilities scientists have not been able to repeat exactly what was created by nature. And no wonder, because the skin – the body compound!
One square centimeter of epithelium that forms the surface layer of skin, “woven” from 3 million cells, 100 sweat and sebaceous glands 13, 9 meters of blood vessels and about 3 thousand touch cells. No wonder the skin is not only the biggest but also the most multi-functional organ of our body. Its total land surface is about 2 m2 and weighs 16% of the total weight of the human body. Skin thickness is different. In places where the body needs increased protection, it is more thick, for example, on the palms and soles of the feet, from 8 mm. But on the eyelids it is the thinnest is less than 1 mm. There are also differences by gender: in men, the epidermis on one-third thicker than the women.
IN THE SKIN CONCLUDED: 240,000 RECEPTORS COLD RECEPTORS 40, 000 HEAT, 60 500 000 RECEPTORS OF TOUCH, MORE THAN 1 000 000 PAIN ENDINGS AND ABOUT 4 000 000 FREE NERVE ENDINGS.
Layer by layer
Our natural costume consists of three layers, each of which has its own complex internal structure.
The uppermost is the epidermis, which is composed of squamous epithelium. Its thickness of only 1 mm, but he takes all the blows of adverse external factors. Here is the formation of melanin, which is not only responsible for skin color and sunburn, but also protects it from sunburn. Regularly – about every 23 weeks – the top layer is replaced with the new, however, in spite of the constant renewal of the outer “covering”, a person’s appearance and peculiar color of the skin remain unchanged. Due to the special genetic plan skin cells are able with absolute certainty to play all the pores, dimples, dark spots. That’s why fingerprints remain unchanged throughout life, characteristic only for one person, and are our “logo”.
The dermis is the most thick and heavy layer. It is under the epidermis and is permeated with collagen fibers, capillaries, nerve endings, hair follicles, sebaceous and sweat glands.
The third layer is the hypodermis – composed of collagen and fat cells. Here is concentrated the whole reserve of nutrients that our body puts in case there’s an emergency – hunger, cold, illness.
DURING THE DAY PEOPLE THROWS WITH 14 MILLION PARTICLES OF SKIN COLOR, AND THEIR TOTAL WEIGHT OVER A LIFETIME IS ALMOST 50 KG
Renewal and healing
All properties and skin benefits, about which we wrote above, would not have been possible if skin cells could not be updated. The permanent regeneration process in the skin happens as a result of continuous cell division. The dead keratinized cells of the skin separating from the upper part of the epidermis and replace them with new.
However, even a dead layer of cells is also necessary for our body. Dead skin cells are living cells of the skin as a protective barrier. And derma has a wonderful property to heal itself. It is established that the process of recovery of the skin starts immediately after the injury. Skin wound heals from the bottom up and from the edge inward, thus its edges are gradually pulled together. At the later stages of healing begins the most amazing part. Still no one knows why the cells stop regenerating, and how and when they finish work on the restoration of the skin.
The internal organs, and also various chemical reactions are the main sources of heat in the body. The body temperature of a healthy person, regardless of the season, is 36,6 °C. the maintenance of this stability is responsible for the skin. Narrowing or dilating cutaneous blood vessels and thus increasing or decreasing blood flow to the skin, the process of thermoregulation. At high temperature the blood vessels begin to dilate and pass more blood. As a result, the skin starts to heat up and gives off heat to the outside. When the ambient temperature drops, the body immediately takes steps to conserve heat constricts blood vessels and reduces teplootdachu.
From excess of heat our body releases through sweating. The human body has more than two million sweat glands. And they brought to the surface of our body water, where it evaporates, cooling the body.
Due to the millions of skin receptors can detect pain, to feel the temperature difference, to distinguish between the properties of the surfaces, react to the squeezing and stretching. It is difficult to imagine that 1 cm2 of skin is 5000 sensitive endings. Nerve receptors are unevenly distributed. The greatest sensitivity of the skin differs on finger tips, nose and the center of the palm. Such properties of the skin provide a special connection with the environment, warn the person about potential dangers and give the chance to avoid her. Throughout life the skin contains and remembers information about all the human contacts with the outside world is a huge and complex receptive field, which constantly communicates with the brain.
Our skin, like a small chemical factory, continuously involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and salts. Thanks to all these complex processes the human body receives the necessary nutrients. Skin absorbs ultraviolet rays and produce vitamin D. we Know more than the thousands of odors that can come from the skin. And yet our natural suit can shrink when we lose weight, and to stretch when you gain weight.
The mirror of your body
Remember: it is necessary to sleep – and we have “no face”, and when we get sick, we become pale, the skin acquires a yellowish or grayish shade. If the eyes are the mirror of the soul, the skin – display of the body, which can tell a lot about health, diet, way of life and the relation of man to himself.
For example, when it becomes pale with a noticeable blue branches of veins near his temples – a sure sign of anemia.
Concern should also grayish or bluish tints of the skin. This colour change may indicate heart disease. Especially if the blue becomes more visible and increases with physical exertion or excitement.
Emerges yellow – a sure sign of liver problems. For this disease is also characterized by the appearance of small vascular “stars”, which are indicators of intoxication.
IN FACTS AND FIGURES
The epidermis is composed of 12-15 layers of cells, thickness of about 0,07–0,12 mm is slightly greater than the thickness of an ordinary sheet of A4.
Up to 32 million of various microorganisms are on 1 cm2 of healthy human skin.
20 g of sebum per day secrete sebaceous glands, then the fat is mixed with sweat, creating a protective film.
From 62 to 71% of the water contained in the skin of an adult. In the skin of infants – 80-82%.
Of 1.5–2.3 m2 – the area of skin of an adult. It is the largest area of the body.
The stratum corneum has a wonderful property: it is absolutely waterproof due to the tight contacts between the cells and the layer of fat that repels water.
If excessive dryness of the skin, which appeared recently, you need to visit a gastroenterologist and an endocrinologist. Flaking and dryness of the epidermis can signal the development of gastritis, gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer, and disorders in the thyroid gland.
Acne also gives clues about where to look for the “breakage” in the body. Pimples on the temples indicate a bad functioning of the liver and gallbladder. Pimples on forehead – a sign of stomach problems, on the cheeks – a signal of the need to examine the bowel. Rashes on the neck, chin, the contour of the lower jaw indicate possible hormonal failure, especially when adolescence is left behind long ago.
Severe stress can give impetus to the development of psoriasis or neurodermatitis.
Therefore the main thing you need to remember that skin is the most important indicator of our attitude, protective “space suit” that we have to wear all his life, after a full synthetic analogue has not yet been invented, and it will happen soon.